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X-ray computed tomography

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5 Components of a computed tomography (CT) image. (a) The x-ray transmission measurements and resultant CT image correspond to a defined slice through the object. (b) The cross-sectional slice can be considered to contain a matrix of volume elements, or voxels. (c) The reconstructed CT image More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 19 Industrial computed tomography system x-ray cell for the inspection of large fabricated components and castings with multiaxis parts manipulator More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... of micro-X-ray computed tomography in studying powder porosity characteristics nondestructively. bulk density carney flow test hall flow test particle morphology powder flowability shear properties Powder Flowability in Metal Additive Manufacturing Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-ultrasonics, radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... These include serial sectioning, focused ion beam tomography, atom probe tomography, and X-ray microtomography. Nine case studies are presented that represent the work of the various research groups currently working on 3D microscopy using serial sectioning and illustrate the variants of the basic experimental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... noise Changes in magnetic flux from stress applied to magnetic material Online monitoring of magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) systems. In fact, industrial CT systems are used to obtain digital radiographs. The imaging performance with detector arrays is also comparable with that of computed tomography ( Table 5 ). Comparison of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and x-ray computed...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16 Automated industrial computed tomography system for the production inspection of small components. Parts-loading conveyor and cabinetized x-ray system are included in this setup. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... absorption >0.5% Flaw must cause measurable difference in absorption (>0.5%); no cracks, only volumetric flaws such as inclusions; slow Computer tomography (x-ray) Absorption of x-rays/camera Image analysis of 3-D volumetric model/image comparison Volume Mostly not possible If inclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ( x , t ) = β λ I 0 ρ C p e − β x ∫ 0 t f ( t ′ , τ ) d t ′ where β λ is the wavelength-dependent optical absorption coefficient (m −1 ), I 0 is the absorbed energy density of the laser (J/m 2 ), ρ is the material density, C p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... particles). Digital x-ray and computed tomography studies on feedstock powders have observed cases where as much as 60% of the internal volume of individual powder particles appears to be void (likely entrapped gas, shown in Fig. 4a ) and can contribute to final part gas porosity ( Ref 21 ). Various...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... by a computer. Another important advantage is its ability to scan a sample and make a qualitative or semiquantitative estimation of any unusual element or even any usual element that is present in particularly large or small concentrations ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Qualitative scan of sample using x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Computed radiography uses a reusable imaging plate (instead of a film) that employs a coating of a photostimulable storage phosphors to capture images. When exposed to x-rays, the electrons in the phosphor crystals are excited and trapped in a semi-stable high-energy state. A suitable reader scans...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of this article describe how these types of results can then be used in process and simulation modeling. Although there are a number of other very useful 3-D characterization techniques, such as x-ray tomography and 3-D atom probe tomography, it is beyond the scope of this article to cover them all. Instead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... software. While conventional (two-dimensional visible light) imaging is most commonly used, alternatives include imaging various infrared bands, line scan imaging, 3-D imaging of surfaces, and x-ray imaging. The 3-D scanners use lasers or structured light to capture 3-D information of a part. The scanner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is digital photography. The digital camera is incorporated in the scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectroscopy image photography may also be used for the recording of x-ray images and maps. Fig. 30 Setup for scanning electron microscopic examination of exemplar fractured crankshaft Fig. 31...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., electron probe x-ray microanalysis; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; IA, image analysis; IC, ion chromatography; ICP-AES, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; IR, infrared spectroscopy; LEISS, low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; NAA, neutron activation analysis; OES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7