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X-ray computed tomography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general applicability to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... micro-X-ray computed tomography in studying powder porosity characteristics nondestructively. bulk density carney flow test hall flow test particle morphology powder flowability shear properties Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as laser powder-bed fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... underlying principles of transmission microtomography are identical to those of computed tomography as used in medical diagnostic radiology. The transmission of x-rays through matter is dominated by photoabsorption, which has a ∼ Z 4 dependence on atomic number ( Z ). The attenuation of an x-ray beam...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspection method adapted from the medical computerized axial tomography CAT scanner, provides a cross-sectional view of an inspection object. All the previous terms are used mainly in connection with inspection that involves penetrating electromagnetic radiation in the form of x-rays or gamma rays. “Neutron...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Chemical analysis is carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and plasma-emission spectrophotometry. Phase analysis is done by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods, thermal analysis, and quantitative analysis. Techniques used for microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., porosity, cracks, inclusions, fiber distribution, fiber alignment, curing state Good if automated Very good for delaminations, inclusions, voids, porosity Relatively slow; point-to-point test Poor; need for couplant Low if manual testing; high if automated X-radiography Inclusions, fiber alignment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-rays/camera Image analysis/image comparison Volume Mostly not possible If inclusion changes total absorption >0.5% Flaw must cause measurable difference in absorption (>0.5%); no cracks, only volumetric flaws such as inclusions; slow Computer tomography (x-ray) Absorption of x-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... associated with radiography. There are two main aspects of safety: monitoring radiation dosage and protecting personnel. The article summarizes the major factors involved in both and discusses the operating characteristics of X-ray tubes. It describes the various methods of controlling scattered radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., electron microscopes, x-rays, etc. Outputs: image quantification and digital representations. Software name Function or process applications Vendor or developer URL 3D-DOCTOR 3D-DOCTOR is an advanced three-dimensional modeling, image processing, and measurement software for magnetic resonance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... important tools in understanding the behavior of the microstructure. One example is illustrated in Fig. 12 , which shows a 3-D model of a ductile iron microstructure generated using x-ray tomography ( Ref 21 ). Based on this model, a representative 2-D finite-element (FE) mesh is generated, and by using an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... this article describe how these types of results can then be used in process and simulation modeling. Although there are a number of other very useful 3-D characterization techniques, such as x-ray tomography and 3-D atom probe tomography, it is beyond the scope of this article to cover them all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
..., the reason for the increase in strength due to intermetallic formation also must be probed using in situ testing techniques such as digital image correlation and x-ray and neutron diffraction. In the case of pearlitic steels, the impact of plastic deformation on the interface during UAM must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... address other geometric concerns within the powder, namely entrapped gases that formed pores during powder production (powders are produced primarily by gas atomization that can lead to entrapped gas within powder particles). Digital x-ray and computed tomography studies on feedstock powders have observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... stitched together using sophisticated software to form a 3-D image of the part (x-ray computed tomography). This provides a significant increase in information with high resolution but is currently very expensive, so it is typically used in prototype development. Automatic defect recognition is a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-degrading defects. Efforts to detect defects using x-ray computed tomography and to heal the pores through postprocessing HIP have shown significant improvements to the as-built structural integrity of AM components. Nonetheless, metal AM postprocessing and inspection are both cost- and time-expensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... reason, HIP has no affect on the surface roughness of a component. Figure 4 shows a schematic of defect elimination by HIP. Densification by HIP for electron beam powder-bed fusion (E-PBF)-printed Ti-6Al-4V is shown in Fig. 5 , where a printed coupon was analyzed using x-ray computed tomography before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... understanding. A variety of new technologies have been applied in materials characterization: electron backscatter diffraction analysis, focused ion beam tomography, x-ray computed tomography, and three-dimensional optical profilometry, to name a few. These modern techniques enable researchers to further...