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X-junction

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 8 Comparison of defects obtained in X-junctions produced under controlled conditions to encourage the defects. Section size of tests: 3 by 3 in. unless otherwise noted. Center lines of offsets are 8 in. apart. More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract In most castings, there are junctions between intersecting component members. This article describes how defects can be eliminated in five types of junctions in steel castings, namely the L-junction, T-junction, V-junction, X-junction, and Y-junction. It also discusses design...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Redesign of casting to minimize heat concentration. (a) Design has numerous hot spots (X junctions) that will cause the casting to distort. (b) Improved design using Y junctions. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 2 Redesign of a casting to minimize heat concentration. (a) Design has numerous hot spots (X-junctions) that will cause the casting to distort. (b) Improved design using Y junctions More
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 2 Redesign of a casting to minimize heat concentration. (a) Design has numerous hot spots (X junctions) that will cause the casting to distort. (b) Improved design using Y junctions. Source: Ref 6 More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Minimizing the concentration of heat in junctions, therefore, aids in improving casting properties. Examples of this are shown in Fig. 4 . Fig. 4 Redesign of casting to minimize heat concentration. (a) Design has numerous hot spots (X junctions) that will cause the casting to distort. (b) Improved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... = ∑ i n γ i ⋅ ( t x i t y i ) − M ( φ ) i ( n x i n y i ) Δ s i Fig. 12 Triple junctions, (a) Variables used for calculation of triple-junction velocity. (b) The torque caused by the dependency...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... , and Simon W. , Neutral Carrier Based Ion-Selective Electrodes , Ion-Sel. Electrode Rev. , Vol 5 , 1983 , p 3 – 92 10.1016/B978-0-08-031492-1.50005-X 4. Freiser H. , Ion-Selective Electrodes in Analytical Chemistry , Vol I and 11 , Plenum Press , 1978 5. Bailey P.L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of superconductivity ( Ref 13 ) invoking a macroscopic quantum mechanical wave function or order parameter (ψ) for which |ψ( x )| 2 = n s , where n s is the density of superconducting electrons. The minimum distance over which n s may change significantly (for example, at a normal metal/ superconductor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... concentration. (a) Design has numerous hot spots (X-junctions) that will cause the casting to distort. (b) Improved design using Y junctions Concave corners concentrate heat, so they freeze later and more slowly than straight sections, while convex corners lose heat faster and freeze sooner and more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... , at diffusional creep temperature. The free energy of the wire can be defined as: (Eq 6a) F = P X ⋅ γ π D L where x is the coordinate of the weight P relative to the arbitrary point on the normal to the Earth's surface, L is the length of the wire, and γ is the surface tension of the free...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., this article briefly reviews concepts that may help clarify and quantify objectives for more effective mold-filling designs. The design of improved filling systems is now significantly facilitated by research tools such as the video x-ray radiography technique, in which the flow behavior of real liquid metals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to suit specific end-use requirements include 300 series austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base alloys (Hastelloy X and Inconel 600 and 702), and tantalum and niobium alloys. Depending on temperature and application, magnesia, alumina, beryllia, or thoria can be used for the insulation. Selected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0005549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Planck's constant, 6.626 x 10-27 erg' s H henry cracking electron H enthalpy; magnetic field ISO International Organization for E Young's modulus; applied voltage; H a applied magnetic field He coercive force; thermodynamic critical Standardization activation energy ISRI Institute of Scrap Recycling Eeorr...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... conditions are periodic in the x -direction and fixed in the y -direction. There are two boundary misorientations in the system: θ 1 is the misorientation angle of the A/B and A/C boundaries, and θ 2 is the misorientation angle of the B/C boundaries. There are two triple junctions in the system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract This article provides an in-depth review of thermocouples and the metals from which they are made. It explains how dissimilar metal conductors in contact at opposite ends can generate an electromotive force if the junctions are heated or cooled to different temperatures. The article...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...   a The superscript o (Δ G o , E o ) refers to the standard state, which in this case is the pure material; that is, AgCl. An activity coefficient, γ, is defined in terms of the activity, a , and the mole fraction, X : γ = a / X Note that γ may be less, equal, or greater than unity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... 9 , and are often called beta curves ( Ref 18 ). In the past, the use of x - y plotters was popular, but data loggers are now more commonly used to gather data under these conditions. Fig. 9 Potential and current tests on a dc transit system The current in the pipeline at different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of some amorphous structures may deviate from the stoichiometric, with the resultant alterations in their properties. Figure 1 shows an example of near-zero dispersion of amorphous Ba x Ti 2− x O y thin films and still very low dispersion of partially and fully crystallized barium-titanate films...