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Watts solution

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 140 100 68 51 41 34 26 20 Note: Values are based on 95.5% cathode efficiency. Nickel electroplating solutions Table 2 Nickel electroplating solutions Electrolyte composition, (a) g/L Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Typical semibright bath (b) Nickel sulfate, NiSO 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as deposition current density is increased, whether the solution is Watts-type, conventional sulfamate, or 600 g/L nickel sulfamate Ni-Speed ( Ref 20 ). Manganese content rises from 0.02 to 0.03% at 4.3 A/dm 2 (40 A/ft 2 ) to 0.17 to 0.22% at 12.9 A/dm 2 (120 A/ft 2 ). These data were obtained in a solution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 1 Process summary chart for ECM and EDM Electrochemical machining (ECM) Electrical discharge machining (EDM) Principle Controlled metal removal by anodic dissolution. Direct current (dc) current passes through flowing film of conductive solution that separates workpiece from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... nickel cations (Ni 2+ ). Upon current flow, the nickel cations migrate toward the cathode, where they react with two electrons and plate out as metallic nickel on the cathode surface. Negatively charged anions (Watts nickel-plating solution: Cl − , OH − , SO 4 2− ) migrate toward and are discharged...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and operating conditions for the Watts and nickel sulfamate processes, which are the two most popular solutions (plating baths). Nickel electroplating solutions Table 8 Nickel electroplating solutions Electrolyte composition (a) , g/L Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Typical semibright bath (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 2 ) for 20 to 30 min in a solution of 2.5 vol% of 48% HF, 2.5 vol% of HCl, sp gr 1.16, and 95% absolute methanol at 40 to 50 °C (105 to 120 °F), gives a more uniform surface texture on tantalum. After this treatment, 0.3 μm (12 μin.) of nickel is deposited in a Watts bath, pH 4.0, vacuum heat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of compositions and operating conditions for the Watts and nickel sulfamate processes, which are the two most popular solutions (plating baths). Table 8 Nickel electroplating solutions Electrolyte composition (a) , g/L Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Typical semibright bath (b) Nickel sulfate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Solutions used with ultrasonic cleaning of various parts Table 1 Solutions used with ultrasonic cleaning of various parts Material of construction Types of parts Contaminants Suitable Cleaning agent Iron, steel, stainless steel Castings, Stampings, machined parts, drawn wire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... , J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. , Vol 136 , No. 6 , 2014 , p 061024 10.1115/1.4028531 5. Leu M.C. , Tang L. , Deuser B. , Landers R.G. , Hilmas G.E. , Zhang S. , and Watts J. , Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication of Composite Structures , Proc. 22nd Annual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Nickel electroforming solutions and selected properties of the deposits Table 1 Nickel electroforming solutions and selected properties of the deposits Parameter Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Electrolyte composition, g/L (oz/gal) NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O—225–300 (30–40) Ni(SO 3 NH 2 ) 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627081818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... designation number approximated ten times the maximum core loss in watts per pound, exhibited by 29 gage samples when tested at a flux density of 1.5 T (15 kG) and a magnetic circuit frequency of 60 Hz. More specific information is given by the present ASTM designation. A typical ASTM designation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of welding is that of a moving line source through the weldment ( Ref 28 ). The appropriate solution of the heat equation was obtained by Rosenthal ( Ref 29 ). The model does not describe the typically observed semicircular part of the weld cross section at the top, because it corresponds to a liquid region...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.9781627081832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... millivolt MV megavolt N Newton N number of cycles; normal solution; normal force NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NDE nondestructive evaluation NEC National Electric Code NEMA National Electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... uniaxial anisotropy K-M Kossel Mollenstaedt (diffraction pattern) L length ln natural logarithm (base e ) log common logarithm (base 10) LRO long-range order LTE local thermodynamic equilibrium m molal solution M magnetization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... resistance alloys are single-phase, solid-solution alloys; thus, the changes in resistance that occur are relatively small but not insignificant. Changes in resistance are caused by internal changes such as long-range, order-disorder reactions in 71Ni-29Fe alloys, short-range order or clustering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Typical solutions used in pulsed-current plating Table 1 Typical solutions used in pulsed-current plating Constituent or condition Amount or value Watts nickel solution for reel-to-reel plating Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) 650 (87) Boric acid, g/L (oz/gal) 50 (7...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be easily removed without stressing ceramic shell molds; the pattern is simply dissolved out in water or an aqueous solution. Another water-soluble pattern material is based on mixtures of low-melting salts ( Ref 21 ). Patterns based on paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene have found some application...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and they can agglomerate, pack, and lump up in containers and in developer chambers. Three types of wet developers are: suspensions of developer powder in water (the most widely used), aqueous solutions of suitable salts, and suspensions of powder in volatile solvents. Because developers...