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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and the current supplied by the system. Depending on losses to the water cooling, the electrical to thermal conversion efficiency of a plasma spray gun ranges from 42 to 65% of the power input to the gun. The heating power is measured by the specific gas enthalpy, which is the energy per unit mass of gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... is designed with water cooling and heat shields at the billet pinch points and surrounding areas. Regardless of how much detail is done in the design of the pinch roll extractor, this assembly requires additional inspection and/or maintenance on the billet pinch components due to the continuous radiant heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... one or two pairs of drive rolls. It is generally believed that systems having two pairs of drive rolls require the least drive roll pressure to provide dependable feeding. Both air-cooled and water-cooled welding guns are used in the semiautomatic FCAW process. Air-cooled guns are generally...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the metal through the right-angle bend into the runner with minimum turbulence. Previous work on well development had been based on water models. However, more recent work at the University of Birmingham using liquid metals has demonstrated that, at best, the well is no better than no well at all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... platforms, structural steel, water towers, oil storage tanks, military and commercial ships, rail cars, automobile components, hot water heaters, truck frames, wind towers, machine tools, automobile and truck wheels/rims, barges, farm machinery, and locomotives. Self-shielded flux cored wires are used...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Regulators for gases Flashback arrestors Gas, water, and powder hoses Powder feeder Detonation spray gun (Components of the various detonation spray devices vary.) Control console: programmable logic controller, regulators for gases, gas flow control Acoustical enclosure Robotic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Metal casting is the manufacturing method in which a metal or an alloy is melted, poured into a mold, and allowed to solidify. Typical uses of castings include municipal hardware, water distribution systems (pipes, pumps, and valves), automotive components (engine blocks, brakes...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., because no rust could be seen and the operating stresses were insufficient to initiate fatigue. Example 2: Aqueous Corrosion Fatigue of Type 302 and 304 Stainless Steel Springs After six months of operating a new chicken house, a farmer noticed that the majority of the water feeders had stopped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... to prevent the formation of aggregated lumps (also termed as caking) of the powder charge ( Ref 6 ). In wet ball milling, the charge is suspended in an inert liquid such as alcohol, acetone, or water. High-viscosity suspensions usually give rise to low grinding rates, while the other extreme of low solids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... that permit water contamination and retention represent significant safety risks in furnace charging and melting. Ingots up to 22 kg (50 lb) are often notched so that pieces can be broken to facilitate charging and more accurately top off crucible furnace charges. Billets Billets ( Fig. 2...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that permit water contamination and retention represent significant safety risks in furnace charging and melting. Ingots up to 22 kg (50 lb) are often notched so that pieces can be broken to facilitate charging and more accurately top off crucible furnace charges. Billets Billets ( Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... conditions, including soils, waters, or atmospheres of varying corrosivity. It presents the case studies illustrating typical examples of the types of corrosion problems found on military installations. The article describes the various corrosion-control technologies used in military facilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Corrosive to metals Target organ systematic toxicity Gases under pressure Hazardous to aquatic environment Water-activated flammable gases The GHS mandate has a strong focus on labeling, which must include product identifier, supplier identifier, chemical identity, hazard pictograms...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Therefore, the cathode material is liquid at the arc attachment point even with water cooling at the rear of the cathode. For this reason, oxidizing gases generally cannot be used in direct contact with the tungsten tip. Argon shielding is one solution. Further, it should be kept in mind that portions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., and the Hall-Héroult electrolytic process for smelting the alumina dissolved in cryolite to produce pure aluminum metal. The aluminum oxide ore, bauxite, is normally obtained by open-surface mining. Bauxite occurs in three main forms, depending on the number of molecules of water of hydration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... for low-current or out-of-position welding. The most commonly used guns are designed to be cooled by the surrounding air ( Fig. 4 ). However, as amperage requirements increase, a water-cooled gun may be required. Guns are rated based on their current-carrying capacity, generally with a CO 2 shielding gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to prevent soldering of the aluminum to the mold. There are many commercially available permanent mold coatings with custom-tailored thermal properties ranging from highly insulating to chill coats. The proper application of mold coating is crucial to coating longevity and performance. Water-cooled steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Example 11: Aqueous Corrosion Fatigue of Type 302 and 304 Stainless Steel Springs Background After six months of operating a new chicken house, a farmer noticed that the majority of water feeders had stopped working ( Ref 3 ). The water feeders operated on the principle that when the chickens...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... locations to reduce or eliminate hot spots that interrupt the solidification pattern. Water or air cascades and circulating water channels can be used in conjunction with metal chills or by themselves to accelerate local heat transfer to eliminate hot spots and direct the solidification sequence. Mold...