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Wagner theory

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... texture of amorphous and epitaxy oxide layers and presents equations for various oxidation reaction rates. The article reviews different theories to describe the oxidation mechanism. These include the Cabrera-Mott, Hauffe-IIschner, Grimley-Trapnell, Uhlig, and Wagner theories. Schottky defect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the valence band to the conduction band create e ′ and h · pairs. This typically occurs in stoichiometric compounds. Parabolic Rate Equations The oxidation of many metals at high temperatures can be described with parabolic kinetics. Often Wagner's oxidation theory is invoked to explain the behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of parabolic, selective oxidation of a binary A-B alloy was proposed by Wagner for a binary nickel-platinum alloy ( Ref 15 ). Wagner combined his theory of metal oxidation with the Darken model of interdiffusion in binary alloys ( Ref 16 ), and obtained an analytical solution for the kinetics of oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the surface became covered by a monolayer of hydrogen. According to the theory, this hydrogen is stripped off by the bacteria, a process known as cathodic depolarization; this process allows corrosion to continue. It is now recognized that this original mechanism, although it undoubtedly plays an important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of scientific discovery is the development of a theory, a coherent body of knowledge that can be used to provide explanations and predictions for a specific domain of knowledge. Theory development is a complex process involving three principal activities: theory formation, theory revision, and paradigm shift...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.../dissolution, and coarsening. Thermodynamic calculation, which provides a chemical driving force for each event, is integrated with two kinetic models; one is the model based on the Kampmann-Wagner model in the numerical framework (KWN) ( Ref 58 ), and the other is the fast-acting model ( Ref 59 ). The same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of alloys (cast iron) by W. Oldfield England 1969 Patent rights for the production of cast iron with at least 50% vermicular graphite granted to Schelleng United States 1972 Commercialization of austempered ductile iron: a 0.5 kg (1 lb) crankshaft for a refrigerator compressor produced at Wagner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and interfacial forces at the point where the grain boundary intersects the pore. γ sv is the surface tension, γ gb is the grain boundary tension, and ψ is the dihedral angle. Theoretical Analysis of Solid-State Sintering A comprehensive theory of sintering should be capable of describing the entire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Kinetics The classical theory for particle coarsening was developed independently by Lifshitz and Slyozov ( Ref 18 ) and by Wagner ( Ref 19 ). According to their analysis, the kinetics is controlled by volume diffusion through the matrix. Provided that no solute is lost to the surrounding matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... , Ref 38 , Ref 39 ). Among them, Cazacu and Barlat ( Ref 39 ) introduced a general formulation that originated from the rigorous theory of representation of tensor functions. However, with this approach, the conditions for the convexity of the yield surface are difficult to impose. As mentioned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... such as surface-breaking cracks or subsurface material properties ( Ref 3 ). The theory of wave interaction with surface features is challenging, and there are only a limited number of closed-form analytical solutions; perturbation methods can be used where the features are small compared to the wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Lifshitz, Slyosov, and Wagner (LSW) coarsening-rate constant k MLSW LSW coarsening-rate constant modified for volume-fraction effects L b length of lamellar branch N nucleation rate during phase transformation m strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stress m g slope of alpha...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... eutectic growth theory ( Ref 33 ) and is briefly summarized in the section “Eutectics and Other Multiphase Microstructures” in this article. By coupling these equations with a numerical calculation of heat diffusion in the casting, the cooling curve and the average grain size can be calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... “Prevention of Fretting Damage” in this article. This theory extends the possibility of fretting damage to materials other than metals. With the increased use of polymers, both simple and reinforced, in addition to ceramics, this is an area in which further examples of a somewhat different nature are likely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... counterparts ( Ref 7 , 8 ) or from microscopic theories in statistical mechanics (for example, Ref 9 , 10 ). It accounts for the change in atomic bonding from one location to its neighboring locations. In phase-field models where the phase fields are physical order parameters, minimization of the total free...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
.... It is unimpeded by kinetic hindrances that arise when complex, covalently bonded molecular units are organized to form a nucleus (as in materials such as silica, polymers, and so forth). As such, the rate of crystallization in the undercooled melt tends to be relatively high in metallic liquids. The theory...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... tungsten to substantiate the cobalt diffusion theory. Fig. 12 XPS surveys for a heavily TaC-coated sample after 20 min of argon ion-sputtering. (a) Broad scan. (b) Multiplexed cobalt “window.” Note the significant increase in cobalt intensity, yet no detectable tungsten. A indicates an Auger...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... , 1975 , p 1361 13. Kincaid B.M. , Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University , Stanford, CA , 1975 14. Van Ordstrand R.A. , in Non-Crystalline Solids , Frechette V.D. , Ed., John Wiley & Sons , 1960 , p 108 15. Nelson W.F. , Siegel I. , and Wagner R.W...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... available for laboratory studies of corrosion phenomena. Fundamentals The basis of all electrochemical techniques lies in the principle of mixed-potential theory, which was clearly established in a classic paper published in 1938 ( Ref 1 ). It was demonstrated that uniform corrosion occurs when...