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Vickers hardness testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...). Conversely, identical indentation diameters for both types of ball will correspond to different Vickers and Rockwell values. Thus, if indentation in two different specimens both are 2.75 mm diameter (495 HB), the specimen tested with a standard ball has a Vickers hardness of 539, whereas the specimen tested...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., E, and H scales. For hardness testing of thin gages of aluminum, the 15T and 30T scales of the Rockwell superficial tester are recommended. Source: ASTM E 140 Table 2 Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for wrought coppers (>99% Cu, alloys C10200 through C14200) Vickers hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pyramid ( Fig. 8 ) geometry that would produce hardness numbers nearly identical to Brinell numbers within the range of both. This decision was very wise, as it made the Vickers test very easy to adopt. Fig. 8 Schematic representation of the square-base pyramidal diamond indenter used in a Vickers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The article describes testing methods such as room and high-temperature strength test methods, proof testing, fracture toughness measurement, and hardness and wear testing. It also explains methods for determining thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and emissivity of ceramics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 3 mm (0.12 in.) apart with a carbide-tipped height gage. Four gage points are indented at midheight of the cylindrical specimen with a Vickers or diamond brale hardness indenter. Fig. 3 Grids for strain measurements on upset cylinders Scribed lines or hardness indentations should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... distorts the base metal and is influenced by it, which usually results in low hardness readings. The most reliable and most widely accepted hardness values are those obtained with the Vickers 136 diamond pyramid indenter or the Knoop indenter. With these, the hardness test must be made on a carefully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... many aspects the well-known hardness measuring techniques, such as the Vickers and Brinell hardness tests. However, in the “nanoindentation” technique, the indentations extend only to extremely shallow depths, often as low as nanometers. A hard indenter, usually an accurately ground diamond, is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-carbon levels. Vickers hardness was determined at a 30 kgf load Tempering curves (core hardness versus carbon content and tempering temperature) are presented in Fig. 21 for P/F-2000 and P/F-4600 alloys. The curves for P/F-4600 cover ruling sections of 10 mm (0.40 in.) to 25.4 mm (1.0 in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... shows the resistance of the ceramic to catastrophic failure. A ceramic can be indented with either a Knoop or Vickers shaped diamond indenter and the indentation size measured to give a hardness value. Hardness is related to properties such as wear resistance, which is often measured as the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... analysis was performed on the broken implants, and all were seen to be within the ASTM specifications in terms of Vickers hardness, oxide inclusion content, grain size, and δ-ferrite content. Pohler ( Ref 185 ) indicated, in the vast majority of cases, failure of long-bone implants were caused by wrong...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... J431 ( Ref 3 ) classifies sand-molded gray cast irons used by the automotive and allied industries. It defines iron grades by a test bar tensile strength/Brinell hardness ratio, hardness grades by hardness alone, and casting grades by a combination of the iron grade, hardness grade, and special...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., when expressed in this manner, the results are not materials constants, because they are based on experimental conditions. Several models of sliding wear lead to the prediction for volume change: Δ V = k L S / 3 H where L is load, S is sliding distance, H is Vickers hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... depending on the state of the secondary scale at the roll gap HV Vickers hardness of the contacting material HV ox Vickers hardness of the oxide scale h exit Scale thickness at the exit from the roll gap h min Oil film thickness h o Interface heat-transfer coefficient h o...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... localized heat treatments, such as carburizing or induction hardening, have been ted on the failed casting. Knoop or Vickers microhardness tests can be conducted, but the choice of which test method to use is dictated by the hardness conversion tables available for evaluation of the test results. The ASTM...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (1340 °F) 6.99×10 5  At 2000 K (3140 °F) 6.96×10 5 Hardness  Brinell, MN/m 2 1700  Mohs 5.5  Vickers, MN/m 2 1760 Source: Ref 6 Table 2 Typical mechanical properties for fully annealed products Temperature Test direction Ultimate tensile strength Yield...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with values ranging from 83.0 HRA for high-cobalt coarse-grain grades to 93.0 HRA for low-cobalt fine-grain grades. Vickers diamond pyramid hardness (HV) is widely used in Europe; values range from 800 to 2000 kg/mm 2 using a 30 kg load. The precision and accuracy of hardness testing is influenced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... releases the stresses and minimizes the carbon and oxygen content, so that the iron powder softens. To measure particle hardness, indentation hardness tests, such as the Vickers microhardness (MHV) test, can be used. Under an optical measurement system, a pyramidal-pointed diamond is impressed into the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... readings and those converted from microhardness values for five gray irons of different carbon equivalents. Hardness measurements were taken at two laboratories after quenching and after tempering of each iron. The data in Fig. 1 (a) show why the observed values obtained by conventional hardness testing...