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Superheaters

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., superheater tubes, and generating banks. The waterwall, screen tubes, and generating bank tubes are typically made of carbon steels, while superheater tubes are made of carbon steels or chromium-molybdenum steels. The corrosion problems with these boiler tubes in WTE boilers is discussed in detail in Ref 1...
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 48 (a) Ruptured superheater tubes. 0.2×. (b) Creep cracks found in metallographic section of 1 1 4 Cr- 1 2 Mo steel steam pipe. 160×; nital etch. (c) Creep cavities that are linking to form cracks visible in (b). 1500×; nital etch More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 6 Effect of superheat on the eutectic temperature of gray cast iron. Source: Esser and Lautenbusch as quoted in Ref 19 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 5 Distribution after 300 s (bar geometry) (aluminum A356 castings, superheat of 100 °C, or 212 °F). (a) Temperature (°C). (b) Current local rate of gas generated ( w g is defined by Eq 9 ). (c) Average local gas concentration ( c g is defined by Eq 9 ). (d) Gas pressure (Pa). Source More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 6 Temperature evolution for the tested molds (cast iron casting) (superheat of 200 °C, or 390 °F). M-11 is the thermocouple located in mold 1 at 25 mm (1 in.) from the metal-mold interface. M-12 is the thermocouple located in mold 1 at 10 mm (0.4 in.) from the metal-mold interface. C-1 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 9 Superheat effect on the average rate evolution of gas generated (cylindrical geometry, steel 4140 castings, superheats of 50 and 110 °C, or 120 and 230 °F). Source: Ref 11 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 3 Fluidity versus degree of superheat for four gray irons of different carbon contents More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 578 Creep failure of steam boiler superheater tube. Material: normalized and tempered ASME SA213, grade T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo steel). Cracking occurred at a hot spot due to long-time exposure to tensile stresses induced by the internal pressure and service temperatures up to 705 °C (1300 °F More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 1 Fluidity versus degree of superheat for four gray irons of different carbon contents More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 1 Fluidity versus degree of superheat for four gray irons of different carbon contents More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 Fluidity versus degree of superheat for four gray irons with varying carbon contents More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 14 Influence of superheat on columnar structures. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 4 Fuel ash corrosion on superheater and reheater tubes showing the maximum metal loss at the 2 and 10 o'clock positions More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Carbon steel superheater tubes protected by metallic tube shields awaiting installation at one waste-to-energy plant More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 38 Apparent ductile fracture in a 321 stainless steel superheater tube (ASME SA-213 grade TP 321H). (a) Fracture is macroscale brittle because it is on a hoop plane. (b) Intergranular cracking is revealed and at magnification of 4 1 2 ×. (c) Higher magnification (100 ×) does More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 31 Fracture of a steel superheater tube ( example 13 ). (a) The interior of the tube that fractured showing secondary cracks and a black contamination layer. (b) Microstructure of the tube showing triple-point cracks and intrusive oxidation damage. The creep damage was throughout More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H) superheater tube that failed by thick-lip stress rupture. (a) Overall view showing a typical fishmouth rupture. Approximately 1 2 ×. (b) Unetched section from location between arrows in (a) showing extensive transverse More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Superheater tubes made of chromium-molybdenum steel (ASME SA-213, grade T-11) that ruptured because of overheating. (a) Tube that failed by stress rupture. (b) Resultant loss of circulation and tensile failure More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 2.25Cr-1Mo steel superheater tube that failed by creep. (a) As-received failure. (b) Microstructure of the whole tube section is spheroidized carbides in ferrite. Etched with nital. 500× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 26 Carbon steel superheater tube. Pitting corrosion and perforation were caused by the presence of oxygenated water during idle periods. More