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Sulfites, environment

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Published: 01 January 1994
, and other forms of condensation. In these areas, sulfur compounds can combine with atmospheric moisture to convert the normally adherent and insoluble zinc carbonates into zinc sulfite and zinc sulfate. These sulfur compounds are water soluble and adhere poorly to the zinc surface. They are removed by rain More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
, and other forms of condensation. In these areas, sulfur compounds can combine with atmospheric moisture to convert the normally adherent and insoluble zinc carbonates into zinc sulfite and zinc sulfate. These sulfur compounds are water soluble and adhere poorly to the zinc surface. They are removed by rain More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... associated with the kraft process. The sulfite pulping process uses cooking liquors of sodium bisulfite or magnesium bisulfite in a pulp digester with a pH of 3. It is generally considered more corrosive than the kraft process environment. See the section “Corrosion in the Sulfite Process” for details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of metals during burial are complex, being affected by environmental pollutants, other archaeological material, geography, microorganisms in the soil, vegetation, land use, soil chemistry, soil physical properties, and the presence or absence of water and air ( Ref 3 ). The burial environment can range from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the separation in the galvanic series, as described subsequently. Environmental Control In particular cases, it is possible to reduce or eliminate galvanic-corrosion effects between widely dissimilar metals or alloys in a particular environment. The use of corrosion inhibitors is effective in some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for other applications may not be optimal for corrosion resistance in petroleum environments. Environmental Considerations There are several environmental factors that are more or less unique to oil and gas production. One factor is the general absence of oxygen in process fluids. The dominant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... mechanically mashing wood chips or chemically separating cellulose fibers from binding lignin chemicals in wood. Breaking down wood chips to produce fibers can be done in a whole spectrum of chemical environments, from acid sulfite digestion, through neutral or moderately alkaline, mechanical grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., electrostatic adsorption, and chemisorption. A more simplistic view of this mechanism of corrosion inhibitors can be described as controlled precipitation of the inhibitor from its environment (water and hydrocarbons) onto metal surfaces. A more recent view of the mechanism of oil/gas field corrosion inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 10 MPa (1450 psi) from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground. Microbial communities exist in environments as diverse as subzero snowfields and deep ocean thermal vents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... rate alloy components fluid components physical properties CORROSION is a process created by the interaction (reaction) between a material, often a metal or alloy, and its environment that results in degradation of that material. Corrosion is affected by the properties of both the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and organic acids and corrosives. These materials display good resistance in oxidizing and reducing environments and are not appreciably affected by concentration or temperature. Exceptions to universal resistance are hydrofluoric acid (HF), fluoride salts, sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), sulfite compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... in the water. However, environmental regulations do not permit the use of lead in the drinking water supply system despite the very low corrosion rate of lead and lead alloys in these environments. Water hardness in the form of salts, if present in at least moderate amounts (>125 ppm), forms films on lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... in atmosphere, water, and chemical environments; and the applications of stainless steels in various industries are also discussed. austenitic stainless steel corrosion corrosion protection corrosion testing crevice corrosion erosion-corrosion ferritic stainless steel galvanic corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in connection with failure by mechanical-environmental processes is the combined effect of stress raisers and environment. Stress Concentrations Stress concentrations are frequently introduced in service by damage from accidental mechanical impact or local electrical arcing. Stress raisers or notches...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... within what are usually considered the protective environments of museums and collections. While interventive treatments remain a viable option, both passive and active control of the environment to minimize or eliminate corrosive agents are preferred in modern conservation practice. Environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ) 2 (OH) 2 White Sulfites and sulfates Lead sulfite Scotlandite PbSO 3 White Lead sulfate Anglesite PbSO 4 White Some corrosion products identified on aluminum exposed to outdoor environments Table 7 Some corrosion products identified on aluminum exposed to outdoor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of environmentally induced cracking, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. It begins by presenting terminology and background of SCC. Then, the general characteristics of SCC and the development of conditions for SCC as well as the stages of SCC are covered. The article provides a brief overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in carbon levels in the alloy due to pickup from oil, grease, or other hydrocarbon contamination during tube preparation Temperature in the first-effect evaporator >150 °C (>300 °F) High local tube temperatures caused by blockages with insoluble salts It has been shown that environmentally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Corrosion in Real and Simulated Environments Structural applications of magnesium alloys usually involve environmental conditions ranging from indoor atmospheres (computer disk drive components and notebook computer housings) to intermittent salt splash (automotive clutch housings). Allowable corrosion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stainless steels have been used in sulfite digestors, and type 316, type 317, and 20Cb-3 have seen service in wet sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and H 2 SO 3 environments. Service life is improved by eliminating crevices, including those from settling of suspended solids, or by using molybdenum-containing grades...