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Steelmaking

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents a detailed account on the process flow, composition, alternative sources, and the advancement of ironmaking, steelmaking and secondary steelmaking practices. Some steels, such as bearing steels, heat-resistant steels, ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 6 Thermal accretions (mushrooms) formed in Q-BOP steelmaking operations using the Savarde-Lee shrouded tuyere More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 12 Processes for secondary steelmaking. Stirring process: (a) bottom injection and (b) lance injection. Injection processes: (c) powder injection and (d) wire feeding. Vacuum processes: (e) stream degassing, (f ) Ruhrstahl-Heraeus degassing, and (g) Dortmund-Horder-Huttenunion degassing More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 4 Flow diagram for ironmaking and steelmaking through open-hearth and oxygen-steelmaking routes. BOF, basic oxygen furnace More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 10 Processes for secondary steelmaking. Stirring process: (a) bottom injection and (b) lance injection. Injection processes: (c) powder injection and (d) wire feeding. Vacuum processes: (e) stream degassing, (f) R-H degassing, and (g) D-H degassing. Heating processes: (h) VOD process, (i More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article describes ironmaking and steelmaking practices (melt or liquid processing, including hot metal desulfurization) and discusses the evolution of these processes and their effects on steel properties. The physical chemistry of steelmaking may appear deceptively simple...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hole, water-cooling system, preheat and furnace scrap burners, and ladles. The article describes the acid and basic steelmaking practices. It discusses the raw materials used, oxidation process, methods of heat reduction, and deoxidation process in the practices. The article provides a discussion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the properties of complicated shapes, and various simulative forming tests. The mechanical properties of steel sheet that influence its forming characteristics, either directly or indirectly, can be measured by uniaxial tension testing. The article covers the effects of steel composition, steelmaking practices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Notch toughness is an indication of the capacity of a steel to absorb energy when a stress concentrator or notch is present. The notch toughness of a steel product is the result of a number of interactive effects, including composition, deoxidation and steelmaking practices...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... material. This article outlines the advantages of steel continuous casting, along with its developments and challenges for improvement. It provides a general description of the continuous casting process and the design and layout of a continuous casting steelmaking facility. It reviews process enhancements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract This article reviews the selection and formability characteristics of steels, with an emphasis on low-carbon steels and some coverage on the forming of high-carbon steels. It describes the key factors that affect the formability of steels in terms of steelmaking practices, surface...
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 9 Plot of relative contact fatigue life for tapered roller bearings versus steel cleanness for several steel heats produced by various electric-arc furnace steelmaking practices More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 8 Typical real-time monitoring spectrum for the vacuum oxygen decarburization steelmaking process illustrates the capability of the mass spectrometer to show the rapid changes in composition. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 5 Equilibrium curve for dissolved carbon and oxygen compared with operational carbon-oxygen trajectories for various steelmaking processes. The isopercentage error lines illustrate the relative importance of carbon to oxygen diffusion on carbon-oxygen kinetics. Q-BOP, quick-quiet basic More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... degassing refractories vacuum ladle degassing vacuum oxygen decarburization melting steels steel surface metallurgy ladle metallurgy argon oxygen decarburization vessel converter vessel direct arc melting MELT PROCESSING of steels can be broadly classified as either primary steelmaking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... thermal spray applications in the iron-steel manufacturing industry. metal products shaping steel steelmaking thermal spray coating PRODUCT QUALITY, maintenance costs, and production requirements are paramount drivers for engineering improvements where key surfacing technologies play...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a slag (from ironmaking, steelmaking, copper smelting, etc.) or a flux (from other nonferrous metallurgy), either basic (CaO/SiO 2 > 2) or acidic (Ca/SiO 2 < 2, on a molar ratio), where S is a given refractory with a given texture. The second case is represented by a reaction of the type S + G...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and sell to. However, a few steel scrap dealers now own steelmaking facilities that utilize the scrap they collect as their primary feedstock material. Scrap metal dealers also tend to specialize in one type of metal, or they have specialized divisions that service the various metals markets. Iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., are composed of compounds containing metallic and nonmetallic materials used in applications such as whitewares, structural clay products, glass, electronics, and cements. Specific applications of refractories include liners for basic oxygen and electric arc steelmaking furnaces, steel ladles, aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... A semantic distinction can be made between alloying elements and residual elements; the latter are not intentionally added to the steel, but result from the raw materials and steelmaking practices used to produce the steel. Any particular element can be either alloying or residual. For example, some nickel...