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Steam pipes

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Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 12(a) Fracture surface of reheat steam pipe showing corrosion products covering early-fracture region and freshly exposed fracture surface of weld metal. More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 56 Failure of a reheat steam piping line at a power-generating station. (a) Fracture surface of reheat steam pipe showing corrosion products covering early fracture region and freshly exposed fracture surface of weld metal. (b) Closeup of weld metal showing intergranular cracks More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) and ultrasupercritical (USC) power plants. These components include high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater and reheater tubing, water wall tubing in the boiler, high-and intermediate-pressure rotors, rotating blades, and bolts in the turbine section. The article reviews the boiler alloys, used in SC and USC...
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 5 A steam-heated stainless steel pipe located along the floor of the cargo hold of a ship was found to be leaking at a connecting sleeve that had been fitted several months earlier during a maintenance repair at a foreign port. The steam pipe was used to keep the cargo, phosphoric acid More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 48 (a) Ruptured superheater tubes. 0.2×. (b) Creep cracks found in metallographic section of 1 1 4 Cr- 1 2 Mo steel steam pipe. 160×; nital etch. (c) Creep cavities that are linking to form cracks visible in (b). 1500×; nital etch More
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Published: 01 December 2004
. The metallographer is in tight quarters preparing a polished area on a steam pipe. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 32 Feedwater pipe thinning and rupture. See the article “Corrosion of Steam- and Water-Side of Boilers” in this Volume. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... , 36 , 37 ). In addition, there is water droplet erosion of last rows of LP turbine blades ( Ref 2 , 3 , 6 , 29 , 38 ) and solid-particle erosion in the high-pressure and intermediate-pressure turbines and turbine valves caused by exfoliation of oxides in superheaters, reheaters, and steam piping...
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 63 The strapped-on plate near the top of the 30 cm (12 in.) diameter pipe was intended to be a short-term palliative measure to contain water/steam that was escaping after a few months' service. The type 304 pipe first supplied water and then air to an adjacent process vessel via More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of service, on standby or for maintenance. Proper water chemistry control improves boiler reliability and reduces maintenance and component replacement costs. It also improves performance and life of heat exchangers, pumps, turbines, and piping throughout the steam generation, use, and condensation cycle...
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 2 The area of the same carbon steel pipe system as in Fig. 1 where the heater clips were placed in direct contact with the pipe, without insulation. This caused overheating because the pipe was in direct contact with the steam heater. The combined effect of waterline attack and elevated More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... steel pipes in BWRs, PWSCC of nickel-base alloys and steam generator corrosion in PWRs, the effect of irradiation on corrosion and SCC, corrosion of zirconium alloy fuel cladding, and the corrosion of containment materials for radioactive waste isolation for both BWRs and PWRs. All of these subjects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and fouling, and fabrication defects, which include most incidents of poor workmanship, improper material, and defective material, together account for more than 75% of all failures of steam-power-plant equipment. Most steam-generator failures occur in pressurized components, that is, the tubing, piping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., steam piping, pressure vessels, and so forth. These components are very large, extremely expensive to replace, and are still being used to generate power and thus cannot be dismantled or sectioned to obtain a metallographic specimen. It is important to know how much “life” is left in these components...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 29 Failure of a power plant steam drain (Example 16). (a) Failed steam drain section. (b) Fracture-surface profile showing tearing at graphite particles. Original magnification: 500×. (c) Alignment of graphite in the pipe remote from the failure. Original magnification: 50×. (d) Higher More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to wrought Monel pipe. Metallographic examination disclosed many small microfissures in the weld metal, but no microfissures were found in the HAZs of the wrought Monel. This section of line contained high thermal stresses that resulted from injection of steam a short distance upstream from the coupling...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 6 This cross section of the wall of the pipe and sleeve in Fig. 5 shows general thinning from the outside of the sleeve that was attributed to local overheating. The adjacent areas were insulated by the air gap between the steam tube and the sleeve. OD, outside diameter Corrosion More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (that will be privatized at some installations) such as metal buildings, metal roofing, aircraft hangars, outdoor electrical sheet metal for air conditioners, electrical boxes, underground pipes (gas, water, steam, high-temperature hot water), pipes in buildings, boilers, chillers, condensate lines, water storage tanks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., the location of the steam-injection point should not lead to localized overheating. Ideally, steam heating of the solvent should occur by steam injection in temporary circulation piping or by use of a temporary heat exchanger. High temperature can also increase corrosion in the vapor space. Foam Cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Figure 11 shows the geometry of a steam vent line in a power plant ( Ref 49 ). The vent line was connected downstream of the feedwater heater, an orifice was installed at the inlet of the pipeline, and some elbows were placed downstream of the orifice. The diameter of the bent pipe was approximately 150...