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Steam boilers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article briefly describes water and steam chemistry, which influence the effect of corrosion in boilers. The appropriate control measures to prevent corrosion in boilers are also presented. The article provides a discussion on the common causes of fluid-side corrosion such as flow...
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 578 Creep failure of steam boiler superheater tube. Material: normalized and tempered ASME SA213, grade T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo steel). Cracking occurred at a hot spot due to long-time exposure to tensile stresses induced by the internal pressure and service temperatures up to 705 °C (1300 °F More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, fracture by overpressurization, inclusion effect, fatigue crack propagation, ductile fatigue striation, secondary cracking, intergranular fracture, and elevated-temperature fracture of alloy steels used in pressure vessels, steam boiler superheater tubes, and box-girder bridges. alloy steel...
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 3 Steam drum for an SA 515 steel electric utility boiler More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) and ultrasupercritical (USC) power plants. These components include high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater and reheater tubing, water wall tubing in the boiler, high-and intermediate-pressure rotors, rotating blades, and bolts in the turbine section. The article reviews the boiler alloys, used in SC and USC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... turbines are multiple-stage axial-flow units. Turbine inlet steam pressure and temperature conditions are governed by the boiler and range from less than 1.4 MPa (200 psi) saturated to more than 35 MPa (5000 psi) at 650 °C (1200 °F) superheated and supercritical. See the article “Corrosion...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 22 Typical kraft recovery boiler used in the wood pulp industry. This is a modern, single-drum design, with the steam drum located outside the gas passage. Most boilers built prior to 1990 incorporated a generating bank, with an upper steam drum and lower mud drum, in place of the boiler More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. The general procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Thin-lip rupture in a boiler tube that was caused by rapid overheating. This rupture exhibits a “cobra” appearance as a result of lateral bending under the reaction force imposed by escaping steam. The tube was a 64-mm (2 1 2 -in.) outside-diameter × 6.4-mm (0.250-in.) wall More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... exhaust; the condensate is then recycled to the boiler. This called the Rankine cycle. The steam is the working fluid, and this is an example of an indirect working fluid. A gas turbine (also called a combustion turbine) is generally a direct cycle; air is compressed by a turbine; at the exit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... at a number of land-based military installations. Marine boilers may be used to heat water and to produce steam to generate main power, auxiliary power, or industrial services. When the first boiler was installed in 1875, boilers were used to supply power for primary propulsion for U.S. naval ships...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 32 Feedwater pipe thinning and rupture. See the article “Corrosion of Steam- and Water-Side of Boilers” in this Volume. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alloy (alloy 800H clad with alloy 671, for example) becomes necessary. The use of sprayed metal coatings and ceramic coatings to combat coal ash corrosion is generally ineffective due to coating spallation, erosion, and rapid deterioration. The steam outlet temperature of a supercritical boiler...
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Published: 30 August 2021
and Ac 3 and subsequent quenching by escaping water or steam. Original magnification: 250× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-to-tubesheet joint heater shell IN STEAM TURBINE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION PLANTS, turbine exhaust steam is condensed, and the condensate is reheated for return as feedwater to the boiler. Water from the condenser to the feedwater pump is called condensate, and from the pump to the boiler...
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Published: 01 January 2002
between Ac 1 and Ac 3 and subsequent quenching by escaping water or steam. Both etched with 2% nital. 250× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... psi) superheated steam. Table 1 summarizes the comparative performance between bare carbon steel tube and alloy 625 overlay tube in a side-by-side test in another boiler. The superheated steam temperature and pressure for this boiler were 399 °C (750 °F) and 52 bars (750 psi), respectively. Wastage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article discusses some elevated-temperature properties of carbon steels and low-alloy steels with ferrite-pearlite and ferrite-bainite microstructures for use in boiler tubes, pressure vessels, and steam turbines. The selection of steels to be used at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... pulping performed: kraft pulping, which is also referred to as sulfate pulping, and sulfite pulping. The kraft process starts with feeding wood chips into large pressure vessels called digesters (see the section “Corrosion of Digesters” for details). Chips are cooked under pressure in a steam heated...