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Steam boiler steel

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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 3 Steam drum for an SA 515 steel electric utility boiler More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-accelerated corrosion oxygen pitting chelant corrosion acid corrosion phosphate corrosion corrosion-assisted cracking HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER AND STEAM react with boiler steel to form oxides, hydroxides, hydrates, and hydrogen, but formation of a protective oxide layer, such as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... prevention supercritical water high-pressure steam piping superheater reheater tubing pressure rotors rotating blades ferritic rotor steels turbine blade alloys THE OPERATING TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES of steam boilers and turbines have been increased to improve efficiencies in steam and power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. The general procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface is a second convective heat-transfer mode. The steam-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, and tube bore diameter. Boilers in service for some time have a fourth component to the heat-flow path: internal scale or deposits. Steam reacts with steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... turbines are multiple-stage axial-flow units. Turbine inlet steam pressure and temperature conditions are governed by the boiler and range from less than 1.4 MPa (200 psi) saturated to more than 35 MPa (5000 psi) at 650 °C (1200 °F) superheated and supercritical. See the article “Corrosion...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Thin-lip rupture in a boiler tube that was caused by rapid overheating. This rupture exhibits a “cobra” appearance as a result of lateral bending under the reaction force imposed by escaping steam. The tube was a 64-mm (2 1 2 -in.) outside-diameter × 6.4-mm (0.250-in.) wall More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alloy (alloy 800H clad with alloy 671, for example) becomes necessary. The use of sprayed metal coatings and ceramic coatings to combat coal ash corrosion is generally ineffective due to coating spallation, erosion, and rapid deterioration. The steam outlet temperature of a supercritical boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-to-tubesheet joint heater shell IN STEAM TURBINE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION PLANTS, turbine exhaust steam is condensed, and the condensate is reheated for return as feedwater to the boiler. Water from the condenser to the feedwater pump is called condensate, and from the pump to the boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... psi) superheated steam. Table 1 summarizes the comparative performance between bare carbon steel tube and alloy 625 overlay tube in a side-by-side test in another boiler. The superheated steam temperature and pressure for this boiler were 399 °C (750 °F) and 52 bars (750 psi), respectively. Wastage...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
and Ac 3 and subsequent quenching by escaping water or steam. Original magnification: 250× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
between Ac 1 and Ac 3 and subsequent quenching by escaping water or steam. Both etched with 2% nital. 250× More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 578 Creep failure of steam boiler superheater tube. Material: normalized and tempered ASME SA213, grade T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo steel). Cracking occurred at a hot spot due to long-time exposure to tensile stresses induced by the internal pressure and service temperatures up to 705 °C (1300 °F More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... at a number of land-based military installations. Marine boilers may be used to heat water and to produce steam to generate main power, auxiliary power, or industrial services. When the first boiler was installed in 1875, boilers were used to supply power for primary propulsion for U.S. naval ships...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the tubes, with saturated steam on the shell side. Shell side temperature is approximately 200 °C (390 °F), while the liquor is 150 to 170 °C (300 to 340 °F). Fig. 4 Digester liquor heater For many years, welded type 304L stainless steel tubes have been the “standard” material of construction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... copper and iron oxides from a boiler while it is intermittently fired. Another chelating agent is the CitroSolv Process, which uses inhibited ammoniated citric acid to dissolve iron oxides and sometimes copper in utility steam generators (patent for Pfizer, also expired.) Chelating agents can often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article discusses some elevated-temperature properties of carbon steels and low-alloy steels with ferrite-pearlite and ferrite-bainite microstructures for use in boiler tubes, pressure vessels, and steam turbines. The selection of steels to be used at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, fracture by overpressurization, inclusion effect, fatigue crack propagation, ductile fatigue striation, secondary cracking, intergranular fracture, and elevated-temperature fracture of alloy steels used in pressure vessels, steam boiler superheater tubes, and box-girder bridges. alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...-transfer surfaces. However, water is corrosive to most alloys and contributes to the buildup of insulating deposits through water-formed and water-borne foulants. Boiler Systems For boilers (steam-generating plants) to function properly, the incoming water must be processed to meet the water quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) is a more recent problem area ( Ref 6 , 7 ). Problems in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are covered in the article “Corrosion of Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems” in this Volume. Most fossil-fired power plants are constructed of carbon steel, and past...