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Springs (elastic)

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Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 1 Spring and dashpot models. (a) Linear elastic material with constant modulus slope, E. (b) Dashpot with linear liquid viscosity slope, η. Reprinted under the Creative Commons CC BY license from Ref 1 More
Book Chapter

By Eugene Shapiro
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... specifies a bend test to determine the modulus of elasticity in bending. Japanese Industrial Standard JIS 3130 specifies two tests to determine the elastic limit of spring plate or strip: the repeated deflection spring test and the moment type spring test. bend testing ductility strength specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of the component for which a material is sought. A beam carries bending moments; a heat-exchanger tube transmits heat; a spring stores elastic energy. Step 2: Write down an Equation for the <italic>Objective;</italic> Step 2: Write down an equation for the objective; it is called the “objective function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... to a given displacement Determining the remaining spring load by transferring the load periodically from the deflecting member to a load measuring device Using the elastic springback on unloading to calculate the spring force remaining immediately prior to unloading using the spring constant...
Image
Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 5 Maxwell element in tension, where E is spring modulus, η e is dashpot viscosity, and σ is stress. The spring is an elastic element obeying Hooke's law, σ = E ε, while the dashpot load-bearing behavior is strain-rate ( ε ˙ ) dependent such that σ = η e ε ˙ . More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article summarizes the general process of distortion failure analysis. It also discusses three types of distortion failures that provide useful insights into the problems of analyzing unusual mechanisms of distortion. These include elastic distortion, ratcheting, and inelastic cyclic buckling...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
of the material. Point A represents the elastic limit of the spring steel; point B represents that of the structural steel. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be plastic or elastic and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. There are two main types of distortion: size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage), and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in geometric form. Most of the examples...
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 7 Springs have many shapes, but all perform the same basic function: that of storing elastic energy. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... not be stress relieved, while expanded rings should be. This consideration applies equally to torsion springs. It is common practice to give these springs a low-temperature heat treatment to provide dimensional stability. Stress relieving affects the tensile strength and elastic limit, particularly...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 15 Load-deflection plot for 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) thick spring-tempered C51000 phosphor-bronze strip. Data obtained by three-point bend testing for determination of modulus of elasticity in bending. Source: Bell Laboratories More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 3 Illustration of viscoelastic behavior. Both viscous and elastic natures are observed. (a) Spring and dashpot in (a) series, Maxwell model and (b) parallel, Kelvin-Voigt model. Note that for viscoelastic materials, force depends on both deformation and rate of deformation and vice-versa. More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Illustration of deformation behavior. (a) Spring. (b) Rotational solid torsion bar. (c) Tensile solid specimen. Flow, Deformation, Solid behavior, Elastic nature: F = F(x); F ≠ F(v) ; F -force; x , Displacement; v, velocity; θ, torque; Θ, angular displacement More
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... to torsion springs. It is common practice to give these springs a low-temperature heat treatment to provide dimensional stability. Stress Relieving Stress relieving affects the tensile strength and elastic limit, particularly for springs made from music wire and hard-drawn spring wire. The properties...
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 20 Mechanical models and typical behavior. (a) Ideal Hookean solid (σ = E ε ˙ ; spring model; elastic response). (b) Ideal viscous Newtonian liquid (σ = η ε ˙ ; dashpot model). (c) Maxwell's mechanical model for a viscoelastic material. (d) Voigt's mechanical model More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 17 Mechanical models and typical behavior. (a) Ideal Hookean solid (σ = E ε; spring model; elastic response). (b) Ideal viscous Newtonian liquid (σ = η ε ̇ ; dashpot model). (c) Maxwell’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic material. (d) Voigt’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic More
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... factors that have a direct bearing on spring performance, and the circumstances in which fatigue could occur. Fatigue failure can occur after as few as 4000 cycles when a spring is subject to very high bending stresses close to the elastic limit of the material, but usually 10,000 to 50,000 cycles...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in the compressive mode. Fig. 5 Maxwell element in tension, where E is spring modulus, η e is dashpot viscosity, and σ is stress. The spring is an elastic element obeying Hooke's law, σ = E ε, while the dashpot load-bearing behavior is strain-rate ( ε ˙ ) dependent such that σ = η e ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... component of response to both stress and strain. Therefore, when modeling viscoelasticity and particularly when limiting that response analysis in one dimension, one can define the purely elastic component to be a spring, and the viscous liquid component to be a dashpot. Figure 1 depicts...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the transformation of elastic strain in the material to plastic, or permanent strain. copper copper alloys stress-relaxation structural applications thermal softening COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS are used extensively in structural applications in which they are subject to moderately elevated temperatures...