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Springs (elastic)

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Book Chapter

By Eugene Shapiro
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... specifies a bend test to determine the modulus of elasticity in bending. Japanese Industrial Standard JIS 3130 specifies two tests to determine the elastic limit of spring plate or strip: the repeated deflection spring test and the moment type spring test. bend testing ductility strength specimen...
Image
Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 5 Maxwell element in tension, where E is spring modulus, η e is dashpot viscosity, and σ is stress. The spring is an elastic element obeying Hooke's law, σ = E ε, while the dashpot load-bearing behavior is strain-rate ( ε ˙ ) dependent such that σ = η e ε ˙ . More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of the component for which a material is sought. A beam carries bending moments; a heat-exchanger tube transmits heat; a spring stores elastic energy. Step 2: Write down an Equation for the <italic>Objective;</italic> Step 2: Write down an equation for the objective; it is called the “objective function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... to a given displacement Determining the remaining spring load by transferring the load periodically from the deflecting member to a load measuring device Using the elastic springback on unloading to calculate the spring force remaining immediately prior to unloading using the spring constant...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
of the material. Point A represents the elastic limit of the spring steel; point B represents that of the structural steel. More
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 7 Springs have many shapes, but all perform the same basic function: that of storing elastic energy. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article summarizes the general process of distortion failure analysis. It also discusses three types of distortion failures that provide useful insights into the problems of analyzing unusual mechanisms of distortion. These include elastic distortion, ratcheting, and inelastic cyclic buckling...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 15 Load-deflection plot for 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) thick spring-tempered C51000 phosphor-bronze strip. Data obtained by three-point bend testing for determination of modulus of elasticity in bending. Source: Bell Laboratories More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be plastic or elastic and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. There are two main types of distortion: size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage), and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in geometric form. Most of the examples...
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 20 Mechanical models and typical behavior. (a) Ideal Hookean solid (σ = E ε ˙ ; spring model; elastic response). (b) Ideal viscous Newtonian liquid (σ = η ε ˙ ; dashpot model). (c) Maxwell's mechanical model for a viscoelastic material. (d) Voigt's mechanical model More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... not be stress relieved, while expanded rings should be. This consideration applies equally to torsion springs. It is common practice to give these springs a low-temperature heat treatment to provide dimensional stability. Stress relieving affects the tensile strength and elastic limit, particularly...
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... to torsion springs. It is common practice to give these springs a low-temperature heat treatment to provide dimensional stability. Stress Relieving Stress relieving affects the tensile strength and elastic limit, particularly for springs made from music wire and hard-drawn spring wire. The properties...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... factors that have a direct bearing on spring performance, and the circumstances in which fatigue could occur. Fatigue failure can occur after as few as 4000 cycles when a spring is subject to very high bending stresses close to the elastic limit of the material, but usually 10,000 to 50,000 cycles...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in the compressive mode. Fig. 5 Maxwell element in tension, where E is spring modulus, η e is dashpot viscosity, and σ is stress. The spring is an elastic element obeying Hooke's law, σ = E ε, while the dashpot load-bearing behavior is strain-rate ( ε ˙ ) dependent such that σ = η e ε...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the transformation of elastic strain in the material to plastic, or permanent strain. copper copper alloys stress-relaxation structural applications thermal softening COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS are used extensively in structural applications in which they are subject to moderately elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... applications by inducing a compressive residual stress on the surface. Failures of Shape Memory Alloy Springs Shape memory or nitinol (NiTi) alloys have typical mechanical elastic properties and super-elastic properties that allow unique stress-strain relationships. Springlike components manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... through a series of dies with up to 85% reduction in cross section, or by heat treating steel containing 0.60 to 0.70% C, quenching in oil, and tempering the wire. The elastic limit in torsion of spring wire is more important to its use in a spring than is its tensile strength. Information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ray elastic constants of the material, variations of σ ij are the stress-tensor components, ϕ is the angle of the direction of strain measurement with respect to the frame of reference, ψ is the angle subtended by the bisector of the incident and diffracted beam, with the specimen normal, and ε ϕψ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... expand on heating. The bond between a pair of atoms behaves like a linear elastic spring when the relative displacement of the atoms is small; but when it is large, the spring is nonlinear. Most bonds become stiffer when the atoms are pushed together and less stiff when they are pulled apart...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... Then, the removal of the outer spring becomes analogous to removal of material during machining ( Ref 5 , 12 ), of the casting mold ( Ref 13 , 14 , 15 , and 16 ), or of the forging die ( Ref 17 ). Two cases are considered. In the first case, the stresses in both springs are assumed to be within their elastic...