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Spent nuclear fuel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... radioactivity, and thermal shocks. Thermal-sprayed Al 2 O 3 coatings can provide corrosion protection and electrical insulation to reprocessing plant equipment. Spent fuel rod long-term storage containers are designed for a useful life of 10,000 years in an aqueous environment subject to rosion. Oxide ceramics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... bundles of 2 to 4% enriched uranium dioxide fuel pellets stacked in zirconium alloy cladding tubes. This Section deals with corrosion issues in light water reactors, research on the corrosion mechanisms, and the development and implementation of engineering solutions. The burial of spent fuel that has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of radionuclide contamination. Because coatings in the turbine building do not have to be DBA-qualified, more coating options are available. Other Service II areas include radwaste storage buildings where spent fuels are stored. The following coating types have been used in Level II areas: Solvent-borne...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... species. Because of this factor, the most stringent standards for disposing of radioactive wastes are being placed worldwide on HLW, and the majority of the radioactive-waste management effort is being directed toward the HLW problem. One of the most common types of HLW is the spent nuclear fuel (SNF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... are generated from spent nuclear fuel, dismantled nuclear weapons, and products such as radiopharmaceuticals. The most important design item for the safe storage of nuclear waste is effective shielding of radiation. Corrosion is an important issue in the design of the casks used for permanent storage, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.9781627081849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... PVD polyethylene-vinyl acetate SMP NACE trials; mole fraction; PVDF polyvinyl chloride SNF embrittlement normal (solution); number PVF plasma vapor deposition SOHIC silicone-modi ed polyester NDE of cycles in corrosion-fatigue PWR polyvinylidene di uoride spent nuclear fuel testing Q polyvinylidene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... 304 SS BWR Low stress (bending) (a) Cracking in AGR fuel occurred during storage in spent fuel pond. (b) Cracking of core internals occured away from high neutron and gamma fluxes. Note: SS, stainless steel; L SS, low-carbon stainless steel; BWR, boiling water reactor; PWR, pressurized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... vessels ( Ref 5 ). The combination of excellent hot water corrosion resistance, good ductility, and good machinability, along with a large neutron absorption cross section, makes hafnium ideal for this application. Hafnium has been proposed as separator sheets to allow closer spacing of spent nuclear fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... energy penetrators because of its high density (68% greater than lead) and ease of fabrication. Uranium has moderate strength and ductility and can be cast, formed or machined, and welded by standard methods. Pure uranium metal and uranium alloys have also been used as nuclear fuel in plutonium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., with its high neutron cross section and corrosion resistance similar to zirconium in high-temperature water and steam environments, is used as nuclear reactor control rods and has been used for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Zirconium also finds use in flashbulbs, incendiary devices, sputtering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion/oxidation resistance, resistance to irradiation damage, and transparency to thermal neutrons to sustain the nuclear reaction was needed to clad nuclear fuel. Zirconium seemed to meet these requirements; however, only a few hundred pounds of zirconium were produced in the United States in 1945...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... (FGD) units used to scrub emissions from coal-fired power plants, and as canisters to contain low-level radioactive waste such as spent fuels from nuclear power plants. These applications are discussed in the articles “Corrosion of Emission-Control Equipment” and “Corrosion in the Nuclear Power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...) of powder metallurgy (PM) parts. It has been proposed that iron powder could be used to “fuel” vehicles by passing water vapor over a bed of heated powder and burning the hydrogen produced. The spent (oxidized) powder would be returned to a centralized facility for reduction. Automobile air bag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of high- level nuclear waste require that the radionucleides remain substantially contained within the waste package for 300 to 1000 years after permanent closure of the repository. The current concept of a waste package involves the insertion of spent fuel bundles inside a container that is then placed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... work of a number of investigators over a period of years. Preliminary time and effort spent considering metallurgical factors, environmental variations, statistical treatment, and the interpretation of accelerated test results are often the most useful part of the test procedures. Typical corrosion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and the time spent in the HF release period of 600 to 750 °C (1110 to 1380 °F). The time and temperature at soak should also be minimized. The following table summarizes some of the factors that can be controlled: Factor Strategy to reduce fluorine emissions Body chemistry Use high-lime raw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... There are written procedures that require an “eye break,” which means practically “time away from the lamp” for 8 min/h of inspection, and probably rotation of inspection to other products. More time spent on detection improves inspection but at a decreasing rate. Another important factor is speed of examination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Conversely, when portable x-ray or gamma-ray sources are used, capital costs can be relatively low. Operating costs can be high; large percentages of the total inspection time is spent in setting up for radiography. With real-time radiography, operating costs usually are much lower, because setup times...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: Perforation of a Nickel-Base Alloy Kiln <xref rid="a0006787-ref28" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 28)</xref> Spent charcoal from water utilities is regenerated in a 7.6 m (25 ft) long Inconel 601 (N06601) kiln with a 1 m (3 ft) inside diameter and a 6 mm (0.25 in.) wall thickness. The kiln is welded using Inconel...