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Spalling wear

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the spalling fatigue failure, the delamination failure, and the rolling-contact wear. ceramics delamination failure fatigue cracks propagation rolling contact fatigue test machines rolling-contact fatigue rolling-contact wear spalling fatigue failure surface cracks TECHNICAL CERAMICS used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Fig. 1 Scanning electron micrograph of a fatigue spall on a roller from a roller bearing after 630,000 cycles. Roller is AISI 1060 steel, hardened to 600 HV. Spall is 400 μm wide by 700 μm long. Fig. 2 Anatomy of a race spall in a ball bearing. (a) Typical delta shape with the apex...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... may be hidden from view as they grow below the contact surface. By the time cracks grow large enough to emerge at the surface and produce wear particles or delaminations, these particles may become large spalls or flakes, resulting in immediate component loss of function or efficiency. The first...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-element bearings are designed on the principle of rolling contact rather than sliding contact; frictional effects, although low, are not negligible, and lubrication is essential. The article lists the typical characteristics and causes of several types of failures. It describes failure by wear, failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or spalling), rolling contact, thermal fatigue Impact Tooth bending, tooth shear, tooth chipping, case crushing, torsional shear Wear Abrasive, adhesive Stress rupture Internal, external Fatigue Fatigue failure results from cracking under repeated stresses much lower than the ultimate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracks in the middle of the wear track and substrate migration at the edge of the wear track Fig. 17 Mechanism of bulk deformation Fig. 18 Spalling of thermally sprayed WC-Co coating Fig. 20 Influence of normalized coating thickness on the performance of HVOF coating on 440C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-body wear. Smaller and narrower in three-body wear. Aspect ratio: >10 Long, thin, curved, curled, and ribbonlike Surface may be either smooth or rugged. Fatigue Cyclic stress variations, rolling contact Spalls: 10–100 (0.4–4), aspect ratio ≥10:1. Laminar: 50 to several hundreds (2–12), aspect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Replication Obtaining a Small Sample from the Workpiece Example 1: A Breakage Problem with D2 Tool Steel Rotary Straightener Rolls Example 2: Premature Wear in Cast Iron Sleeves for Rotary Straightener Spindles Example 3: Spalling of Hot Strip Mill Work Rolls Example 4: Comparing Various High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... actually degrade the wear performance of the boride layer. Thicker boride layers may not always perform as well as a thinner boride layer, due to problems with dual-phase layer formations and spalling of the FeB. One other factor that can affect boride layer development is the geometry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Metallographic Observations on the Spalling of AISI 1060 Steel by the Formation of Adiabatic Shear Bands , Wear , Vol 65–66 , 1980–1981 , p 367 6. Burn A.H. , “Practical Trial of 11/2 lb Pein Hand Hammers in Engineering Workshops,” internal report, Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. , July...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Fig. 6 Comparison of wear resistance of (a) hardened and tempered and borided AISI H13 tool steel and (b) hardened and tempered and borided AISI 1060 plain-carbon steel in rotating ball tests. Testing parameters: 25 mm (1 in.) diameter ball; 6.65 N (1.49 lbf) load; 400 rpm rotation speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... region. Wear may occur by rolling-sliding or by surface fatigue (rolling-contact fatigue, or RCF), but eventually RCF begins, and lines of travel caused by micropitting may appear on bearing surfaces. Rolling lines of travel can progress to visible pitting and even spalling. When the mechanical action...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... terminology used to describe the different fatigue mechanisms Macroscale Microscale Macropitting Pitting Initial Pitting Destructive Pitting Flaking Spalling Scabbing Shelling Fatigue wear Subcase Fatigue Case crushing Micropitting Microspalling Frosting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to delaminate or spall. Cracks arise when a hard coating is not tough or ductile enough to accommodate the stress of deformation under an impact. In ballistic impacter wear testers, repetitive impacts are achieved by firing projectiles at a counterface. To ensure the projectiles impact at the same point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... to at least 60 HRC, smoothly finished on the wearing surfaces, hard chromium plated, and the plating polished or buffed. Punches should be plated to a thickness of 0.005 to 0.01 mm (0.0002 to 0.0004 in.). To prevent spalling or flaking of the plate, dies should not be plated more than 0.005 mm (0.0002...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... component life. A brief discussion on coatings to improve surface-initiated fatigue and wear is included, due to the similarity to RCF and the increasing criticality of this failure mode. The article presents a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory, describes the life prediction of rolling-element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., AB 2 Fig. 3 Slag corrosion and penetration of a refractory leading to crack formation, the precondition to structural spalling Fig. 9 Fusion-cast refractories recommended for melt-contact application. (a) α-β alumina. (b) Chrome-alumina. (c) Fused zirconia. (d) Fused alumina...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... on Spalling of a Cr-Mo White Cast Iron , Wear of Materials , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1983 , p 471 – 476 5. Maratray F. and Poulalion A. , “Study of the Hardness of the Martensitic Structures in High-Chromium Ferrous Alloys and the Control and Transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... on Spalling of a Cr-Mo White Cast Iron , Wear of Materials , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1983 , p 471 – 476 4. Maratray F. and Poulalion A. , “Study of the Hardness of the Martensitic Structures in High-Chromium Ferrous Alloys and the Control and Transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be twofold. One purpose may be to determine the relationship between the microstructure and the crack path (in failures involving fracture) and/or the nature of corrosion or wear damage. The second purpose is to determine whether processing or service conditions have produced undesirable microstructural...