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Spalling wear

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fatigue failure, the delamination failure, and the rolling-contact wear. ceramics delamination failure fatigue cracks propagation rolling contact fatigue test machines rolling-contact fatigue rolling-contact wear spalling fatigue failure surface cracks TECHNICAL CERAMICS used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., the bearing becomes noisy and rough running. If allowed to continue, fracture of the rolling element and catastrophic failure occurs. Fractured races can result from fatigue spalling and high hoop stresses. Rolling contact components have a fatigue life (number of cycles to develop a noticeable fatigue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... view as they grow below the contact surface. By the time cracks grow large enough to emerge at the surface and produce wear particles or delaminations, these particles may become large spalls or flakes, resulting in immediate component loss of function or efficiency. The first signs of RCW may...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 (a)–(c) Surface fatigue damage resulting from “natural” ring cracks and (d) line defects. (a) Ring cracks and wear track after 113 million stress cycles at crack location β = 0° and δ = 0, where β is the angle of the chord of ring crack to the central line of the contact track, and δ More
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 10 Wear indicators measured for eight of the whole fleet. The sampling numbers do not represent constant time intervals. (a) Iron concentration based on rotating disc electrode optical emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES). (b) Wear particle concentration (WPC) and (c) D L / D S values More
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
of the ferrogram. Note the surface striations. (c) Cutting wear particles from an oil sample of a failing jet engine. (d) Rolling-element bearing fatigue spalls. Note the smooth surfaces and irregular contours. (e) Laminar fatigue particles generated by rolling-element bearings. Note the holes in the particles. (f More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 512 Surface of a spalling-fatigue fracture in a single tooth of a heavily loaded final-drive pinion of AISI 8620 steel, carburized and hardened to 60 HRC in the case, showing vertical scratches, which indicate that appreciable abrasive wear took place also. The surface ripples at right More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bearings are designed on the principle of rolling contact rather than sliding contact; frictional effects, although low, are not negligible, and lubrication is essential. The article lists the typical characteristics and causes of several types of failures. It describes failure by wear, failure by fretting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or spalling), rolling contact, thermal fatigue Impact Tooth bending, tooth shear, tooth chipping, case crushing, torsional shear Wear Abrasive, adhesive Stress rupture Internal, external Fatigue Fatigue failure results from cracking under repeated stresses much lower than the ultimate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... contact. Hence, the spalling of gear teeth and bearing materials is also known as fatigue wear or rolling contact fatigue. Spalling damage on a surface can also occur from impact events. For example, the spalling of striking/struck tools is of considerable interest from the engineering, economic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article focuses on different aspects of wear particle analysis. It discusses the different wear regimes in the wear rate versus time (bathtub) curve. The article explains the essence of condition monitoring and how to properly sample lubricants for condition monitoring. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alternating stress field within the rolling-contact bodies, which eventually leads to material removal. The mechanism of RCF thus differs from the delamination theory of wear ( Ref 1 , 2 ), which also relies on cyclic loading but in sliding conditions and at asperity level. The alternating stress field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract Boronizing is a case hardening process for metals to improve the wear life and galling resistance of metal surfaces. Boronizing can be carried out using several techniques. This article discusses the powder pack cementation process for carrying out boronizing. It describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Wear may occur by rolling-sliding or by surface fatigue (rolling-contact fatigue, or RCF), but eventually RCF begins, and lines of travel caused by micropitting may appear on bearing surfaces. Rolling lines of travel can progress to visible pitting and even spalling. When the mechanical action...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Boriding is a thermochemical diffusion-based surface-hardening process that can be applied to a wide variety of ferrous, nonferrous, and cermet materials. It is performed on metal components as a solution for extending the life of metal parts that wear out too quickly in applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... exceptional wear resistance. However, D2 tool steel is also brittle and sensitive to abuse by an impact force. Certain rolls from the same vendor would perform adequately, whereas other rolls would break and spall immediately after being installed. Field metallography was employed in the roll shop to examine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear regime characterized by material smearing and transfer Abrasion: equally severe, one-body or two-body modes lead to the formation of ploughing grooves Surface fatigue: more severe wear again, leading to subsurface crack nucleation and subsequent delamination or spalling of surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract This article introduces process factors that influence die wear and lubrication for metal forming operations such as bending, spinning, stretching, deep drawing, and ironing. It discusses the effects of part shape, sheet thickness, tolerance requirements, sheet metal, and lubrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and subsequent delamination or spalling of surface material Plastic deformation: while not leading to actual material removal, causes displacement of material from the contact area through “mushrooming” Several of these mechanisms of impact wear are shown in Fig. 4 . Figure 5 also illustrates how...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... speculated that high-stress grinding abrasion produces wear by a combination of cutting, plastic deformation, surface fracture on a microscopic scale, as well as by tearing and fatigue, or spalling ( Ref 9 ). In ore processing plants, high-stress abrasion produces practically all of the wear on grinding...