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Solid-state transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Eutectoid and peritectoid transformations are classified as solid-state invariant transformations. This article focuses primarily on the structures from eutectoid transformations with emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It reviews peritectoid phase equilibria that are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract The application of phase diagrams is instrumental in solid-state transformations for the processing and heat treatment of alloys. A unary phase diagram plots the phase changes of one element as a function of temperature and pressure. This article discusses the unary system that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the mechanism, advantages and disadvantages, fundamentals, capabilities, variations, equipment used, and weldability of metals in solid-state welding processes, including diffusion bonding, explosion welding, friction welding, ultrasonic welding, upset welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the methods performed on various types of flaws resulting from solid-state welding processes. eddy current nondestructive evaluation solid-state welding ultrasound testing X-ray radiography A NUMBER OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) methods, such as visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... characteristics are determined by the austenite-to-ferrite transformation that occurs after the last finishing pass. Depending on the chemical composition of the steel and on the precise conditions of hot rolling, the austenite parent phase can either be in a recrystallized or a deformed state prior to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... transformations and free energy, as well as kinetics of phase transformations. It concludes with a description of solid-state phase transformations that occur when one or more parent phases, usually on cooling, produces a phase or phases. free energy intermediate phases interstitial solid solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... free energy of a binary solution. It schematically illustrates the structure of a binary solid solution with interatomic bonds and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from the free-energy curves at a given temperature. The article concludes with information on the construction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... special requirement for solid-state NMR console electronics is a high-speed digitizer. Pulse Fourier transform NMR involves digitization of the time domain signal, and the sampling rate defines the maximum frequency range of the experiment. Because solid-state NMR spectra typically are very broad, at...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... martensite. Such transformations provide the basis of the heat treatments applied to steels. Thus, the fortuitous high-temperature stability of austenite in iron and iron-carbon alloys and the solid-state transformation of austenite upon cooling create many opportunities to optimize shape, section size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... predictive models for variant selection during the β → α transformation and the subsequent development of α texture. Often, well-defined ORs exist between the parent and product phases during solid-solid phase transformations. Familiar examples include Kurdjumov and Sachs (K-S) ( Ref 62 ) and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... domains and space-dividing defects. Fig. 1 Flow-block diagram of martensitic transformation as a multilevel dynamic system. See text for explanation of details. An overall assessment of the current state of computational materials science is that simulations have demonstrated remarkable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... peritectic reaction and transformation. (a) Lateral growth of a β layer along the α-liquid interface during peritectic reaction by liquid diffusion. (b) Thickening of a β layer by solid-state diffusion during peritectic transformation. The solid arrows indicate growth direction of β; dashed arrows show the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... peritectic reaction and peritectic transformation were introduced by Kerr ( Ref 8 ). Fig. 3 Mechanisms of peritectic reaction and transformation. (a) Lateral growth of a β-layer along the α/liquid interface during peritectic reaction by liquid diffusion. (b) Thickening of a β-layer by solid-state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of molds, can minimize such defects. Some microporosity, which is unavoidable due to gas evolution and shrinkage that occurs during the liquid-to-solid transformation, invariably results. These micropores are of little consequence to final properties, provided they are uniformly distributed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Distortion (nonuniform shape change) occurs due to the relief of stresses induced into the part during forming, the mechanical creep of parts at austenitizing temperatures, nonuniform transformation of the various part sections during quenching, and solid-state growth during transformation. While austempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... different temperatures. Source: Ref 20 Figures 22 and 23 illustrate stress relief by tempering. A 40 mm diameter by 100 mm long (1.6 by 4 in.) solid cylinder was water-quenched and tempered. Calculated residual stress distributions after water quenching are shown in Fig. 22 . Open and solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... make certain that no external transformers are required. Local utilities are required to furnish a given range of line voltages. However, line voltage variation during a workday can produce output power fluctuations that may be a problem. Also, solid-state devices such as diodes and SCRs produce line...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract The term isomorphous refers to metals that are completely miscible in each other in both the liquid and solid states. This article discusses the construction of simple phase diagrams by using the appropriate points obtained from time-temperature cooling curves. It describes the two...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Cast iron exhibits a considerable amount of eutectic in the solid state. This article discusses the structure of liquid iron-carbon alloys to understand the mechanism of the solidification of cast iron. It illustrates nucleation of the austenite-flake graphite eutectic, austenite...