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Sodium sulfate

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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 10 Calculated dewpoints for sodium sulfate deposition as a function of sodium and sulfur content in the fuel. Source: Ref 24 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 32 Effect of sea salt (SS) and sodium sulfate mixture on calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) melting temperature in tests conducted in ambient air. Courtesy of U.S. Navy More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Metals and ceramics exposed to high-temperature salt solutions are susceptible to a form of corrosion caused by fused salts accumulating on unprotected surfaces. This article examines the electrochemistry of such hot corrosion processes, focusing on sodium sulfate systems generated...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Sodium dodecyl sulfate. (a) Chemical formula. (b) Sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle in water More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 6 Combination potentials and galvanic currents of a short-circuited pyrite-pyrrhotite-mild steel (MS) electrode under abrasion in a quartzite slurry in a 0.05 M sodium sulfate solution at neutral pH under oxygen atmosphere. Pyrrhotite, Po. Pyrite, Py. Source: Ref 20 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 9 The Na-V-S-O system. (a) Phase stability diagram at 1173 K (1652 °F). (b) Equilibrium concentrations for Na 3 VO 4 , NaVO 3 , and V 2 O 5 in a sodium sulfate/vanadate solution containing 30 mol% V at 1173 K (1652 °F) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 31 Electrogalvanized 1006, UNS G10060, steel. Careful etching with a chromic acid/sodium sulfate etchant, with a concentration intermediate between etchant 1 and 2 in Table 1 , reveals the interface between layers of zinc deposited in individual cells in a continuous multicell More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... but 3 moles of atoms (2 moles H and 1 mole O). Therefore, if soluble salts such as sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, and sodium sulfate are present, their formula weights are approximately 58.5, 85, and 142 g (2, 3, and 5 oz), respectively. However, if those salts dissolve in water and dissociate to form...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by under-the-hood automotive components. A typical zinc-iron solution composition used in strip line plating is: Constituent Content g/L oz/gal Ferric sulfate 200–300 27–40 Zinc sulfate 200–300 27–40 Sodium sulfate 20–40 2.7–5.3 Sodium acetate 10–30 1.3–4 Organic additive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ( S O 4 = ), referred to as a catalyst, added as sulfuric acid, or as a soluble sulfate salt such as sodium sulfate. When dissolved in water, the chromic anhydride forms chromic acid, which is believed to exist in the following equilibrium: H 2 Cr 2 O 7   +   H 2 O...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (1000 °F). Oil ash corrosion is believed to be a catalytic oxidation of the material by reaction with V 2 O 5 . Sodium oxide also reacts with sodium trioxide to form sodium sulfate, which together with V 2 O 5 also forms a range of low-melting-point liquids with a minimum temperature around 540 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... density can be increased up to 1080 A/m 2 (100 A/ft 2 ). Indium sulfate plating bath Table 5 Indium sulfate plating bath Constituent or parameter Value or condition Indium (as sulfate) 20 g/L (2.67 oz/gal min) Sodium sulfate 10 g/L (1.3 oz/gal) pH 2.0–2.5 Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... baths alkaline plating baths copper plating copper plating equipment dilute cyanide baths electrolytic copper plating fluoborate baths noncyanide copper plating baths potassium cyanide baths pyrophosphate baths Rochelle cyanide baths sodium cyanide baths sulfate baths surface preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of sulfuric acid 121 250 152.4 6 Polymerization Polymerization of butenes with 72% sulfuric acid 80 175 12.7 0.5 Polymerization of butenes with 72% sulfuric acid 80 175 356 pits 14 pits Viscose rayon spinning bath Evaporator—6% sulfuric acid, 17% sodium sulfate, 30% other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Cupric nitrate, all concentrations Room <0.05 2 Cupric sulfate, all concentrations Room-boiling <0.05 2 Cupric sulfate in sodium chloride 100 212 Attacked Cuprous chloride, all concentrations 100 212 Attacked Cuprous nitrate, all concentrations 100 212 Attacked Cuprous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., in the Ni-O-S system, ΔG o values of nickel monoxide (NiO[s]), nickel monosulfide (NiS[l]), nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 [s]), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 [g]), sulfur trioxide (SO 3 [g]), and sulfur (S[l]) are needed. In Fig. 2 , the boundary between the Ni(s) and the NiO(s) regions represents the reaction Ni(s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of chloride salts through the formation of sodium-aluminum silicates, which expel HCl and SO 3 ( Ref 33 ). Problems with chlorides are mitigated if plastics and other sources of halogens are removed or minimized from the waste stream. Increasing the oxygen content and adding water vapor have also reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and 1700 °F). High-temperature hot corrosion is caused by the formation of alkali metal salts, such as sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) and potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ), which melt and form a liquid on the surface. This molten salt attacks the oxide scale, destroying the protection normally afforded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...) … Colorless, transparent oxide film with effect on reflectivity Used as a post-treatment after conventional anodizing is accomplished Sodium sulfate 10 wt% Sodium hydroxide 1 wt% Water 69 wt% Smudge remover Sodium carbonate 2 wt% 92–97 (198–207) … … … … Preserve reflectivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 2 B 4 O 7 ) or lithium metaborate (LiBO 2 ). Fusion with sodium metal is often used as a preliminary step in colorimetric spot testing protocols. (See the section “Sodium Fusion (Lassaigne’s) Test” in this article.) Color Interpretation and Quantitation Many spot tests rely on a simple...