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Sodium hydroxide, environment

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 50 Effect of various alloying elements on the SCC behavior of a low-alloy ferritic steel in two different corrosive environments. Behavior indicated by time-to-failure ratios in a slow-strain-rate test. (a) Immersed in 1 N sodium carbonate plus 1 N sodium bicarbonate at 75 °C (165 °F More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) from soil minerals ( Ref 5 , 9 , 12 ). An acidic environment encourages the oxidation of metals and the dissolution of corrosion products. Alkaline environments (pH>7) develop because of the dissolution of inorganic compounds, especially in regions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Sodium fluorosilicate, pure 100 212 <0.05 2 Sodium hydroxide, <95% Boiling <0.05 2 Sodium hydroxide, melt (b) (e) 500 930 <0.05 2 Sodium hypochlorite, all concentrations Room <0.05 2 Sodium hypochlorite plus sodium chloride, saturated solution Room <0.05 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract True alkaline chemicals include caustic soda or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), caustic potash or potassium hydroxide (KOH), and soda ash or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). This article reviews alkaline chemicals and provides a basis for a general discussion on various alkaline exposures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... resistance to corrosion by strong alkali solutions. Potassium hydroxide solutions do not attack hafnium until the concentration reaches 70 wt%, and then only at near-boiling temperatures. Sodium hydroxide is more aggressive toward hafnium. An upper limit appears to approximately 38% concentration at boiling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Sodium hydroxide was also found in some tunnels. The source of the calcium hydroxide was incompletely cured concrete. Electrolysis of solutions of deicing salts that had seeped into the tunnels was believed to be the source of sodium hydroxide. The buildup in concentration occurred because seepage...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Sodium cyanide 42 5.6 30–41 4.0–5.5 20 2.7 15–28 2.0–3.7 Sodium hydroxide 79 10.5 68–105 9.0–14.0 75 10.0 60–90 8.0–12.0 Sodium carbonate 15 2.0 15–60 2.0–8.0 15 2.0 15–60 2.0–8.0 Sodium polysulfide 2 0.3 2–3 0.3–0.4 2 0.3 2–3 0.3–0.4 Brightener (g) (g...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (oz/gal) 20–30 (3–4) Cobalt chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 1–20 (0.1–2.7) Organic additive, g/L (oz/gal) 5–20 (0.66–2.7) pH 5.0–6.0 Temperature, °C (°F) 20–40 (70–100) Anodes Zinc Alkaline baths Zinc oxide, g/L (oz/gal) 10–20 (1.3–2.7) Sodium hydroxide, g/L (oz/gal) 80–150...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., insoluble ferrous oxide products build up, and the corrosion reaction slows. Also, with increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, the oxygen solubility in water decreases continually. Above 3% NaCl content, the decreased solubility of oxygen becomes more important than any change in the cathodic oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and hydroxide ions (from sodium hydroxide). The hydroxide ions displace sample anions from the resin anion exchange sites. The sample ions elute from the separator column in a background of sodium and hydroxide ions. If the column effluent is then passed through a second column containing a cation exchange...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... identified on copper alloys exposed to outdoor environments Chemical name Mineral name Chemical formula Color Oxide Copper oxide Cuprite Cu 2 O Red Carbonates Copper carbonate hydroxide Malachite Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 Green Copper sodium carbonate trihydrate Chalconatronite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are for electrolyte startup; operating limits for the electrolyte composition are approximately −10 to + 10% of startup values Solution Composition Operating conditions Potassium stannate Sodium stannate Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Tin metal (a) Temperature Cathode current density g/L oz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...% sodium chloride per ASTM G 44). Aluminum alloy 7075-T7X51 specimens stressed 310 MPa (45 ksi); each point represents 60 to 90 specimens. Source: Ref 23 Tuning-Fork Specimens Tuning-fork specimens are special-purpose specimens with numerous modifications ( Fig. 9 ). In Europe, the metal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., acetic (CH 3 COOH), or oxalic; neutral saline solutions, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium chloride (KCl); alkalies, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and anhydrous ammonium hydroxide (NH 4 OH); and various natural waters including sea, brackish, and potable waters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (180–212) Immersion time, min 3–10 Another formula for soak or electrolytic cleaning, which can be used before electroplating, consists of the following: Sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ·10H 2 O), g/L (oz/gal) 22.5 (3) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), g/L (oz/gal) 15 (2) Wetting agent, g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of associated surface deposits and corrosion products. Deposits may contain residual corrosives such as caustic or acid. Magnesium hydroxide in deposits can suggest the presence of an acid-forming precipitation process. Ferrates and sodium carbonate indicate caustic conditions. Sodium-iron phosphate indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... use a blend of different salts chosen from: Orthophosphates, such as trisodium phosphate Condensed phosphates, such as sodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate Sodium hydroxide Sodium metasilicate Sodium carbonate Sodium borate The corresponding (and more expensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydroxide 10–saturated Room NR 10 Boiling NR 25 Room to boiling NR 40 80 (175) NR Sodium hypochlorite 6 Room E Sodium hyposulfite Dilute Room E Sodium lactate … … E Sodium nitrate All Room E Sodium nitrite … … E Saturated Room E Sodium peroxide … 100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the absence of the other” ( Ref 5 ). Their research showed that caustic embrittlement of steel plates used in boilers was the result of the carbon steel boiler plate (a susceptible metal/alloy), the presence of sodium hydroxide (a specific environment) that formed in boiler water from sodium bicarbonate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Sodium hydroxide 115 0.023 0.15 75 1.4×10 −2 Silver strike bath Silver 6 0.03 0.2 90 8.3×10 −4 Cyanide (CN) 70 0.03 0.2 90 9.7×10 −3 Silver plating bath Silver 50 0.16 1 100 3.1×10 −2 Cyanide (CN) 50 0.16 1 100 3.1×10 −2 Electrocleaning Sodium hydroxide 80...