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Shrinkage pipe

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Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage during solidification. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. Source: Ref 4 More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... method takes the typical conical shape of the shrinkage cavity formed in a riser as it simultaneously feeds metal into the casting and solidifies inward from its walls ( Fig. 18 ) and simplifies it to the configuration of a cylindrical pipe ( Ref 23 ). The size of this pipe depends on the weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification. Figure 1 illustrates how rolled bar may contain porosity and pipe imperfections carried over from the cast ingot. These imperfections can serve...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Metal casting is the manufacturing method in which a metal or an alloy is melted, poured into a mold, and allowed to solidify. Typical uses of castings include municipal hardware, water distribution systems (pipes, pumps, and valves), automotive components (engine blocks, brakes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the need for a central core in the pipe mold, and the mold was water cooled, allowing for a high rate of repeated use. The technique uses the centrifugal force generated by a rotating cylindrical mold to throw molten metal against a mold wall to form the desired shape. Therefore, a centrifugal casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... elevated temperature, however, the fusible alloy link will melt, thus disconnecting the parts. In fire sprinklers, the links melt when dangerous temperatures are reached, releasing water from piping systems and extinguishing the fire. Boiler plugs and furnace controls react similarly because an increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... close to the material yield stress, remain as a result of weld shrinkage. Stress-concentration effects as a result of geometrical discontinuities, such as weld reinforcement (excess weld metal) and lack of full weld penetration (dangerous because of the likelihood of crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shrinkage. This article describes the imperfections in the solidification process including porosity, inclusions, oxide films, secondary phases, hot tears, and metal penetration. It talks about the purpose of the gating system and the risering system in the casting process. alloys casting gating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... into the types of polymer-based coatings that are both cost-effective and widely accepted in the pipeline industry. Why Do We Need Pipeline Coatings? Corrosion is the greatest danger to buried steel pipelines. Uncontrolled corrosion of the pipe wall leads to leaks, service interruptions, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Because a weldment is locally heated by the welding heat source, the temperature distribution is not uniform and changes as welding progresses. During the welding thermal cycle, complex transient thermal stresses are produced in the weldment and the surrounding joint. The weldment also undergoes shrinkage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Details and design considerations for injection molding include shrinkage, postmold shrinkage, and size and location of holes and other features. Shrinkage Shrinkage occurs because the plastic melt volume is greater than the solid volume, and the plastic melt is packed into the mold under high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... and the surrounding joint. The weldment also undergoes shrinkage and deformation during solidification and cooling. Thermal Stresses during Welding Figure 1 schematically shows changes in temperature and resulting stresses that occur during welding by examining a bead-on-plate weld of a thin plate made along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings in these municipal water systems. The most commonplace corrosion-damage mechanisms are highlighted. The article describes the most common materials of construction found in municipal water systems, namely, cast iron, ductile iron, carbon steel, precast concrete cylinder pipe and reinforced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Nital etch. Transverse and (b) longitudinal sections. (c) Copper water pipe. Ferric chloride etch. Transverse and (d) longitudinal sections Cleaning Fracture Surfaces The practices that should be used when cleaning fracture surfaces are: Use the mildest agent possible and take care...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracks are potential sources of failure because, although frequently small, they usually exist at the end of the weld where stress concentration is greatest. Their occurrence may be minimized by pausing before breaking the arc, by breaking and restarting the arc several times to feed the shrinkage pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... Over 50 years ago, Whittenberger and Rhines classified microporosity according to the two main driving forces: gas or shrinkage ( Ref 8 ). Although this article focuses on these two driving forces, as detailed by Campbell, there are many other possible reasons for pores to form, ranging from entrapped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0