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Shell fractures

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 11 Failed brine-heater shell of ASTM A285, grade C carbon steel. The shell fractured at welded joints because of overstress during normal operation. Dimensions in inches More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 Failed brine-heater shell of ASTM A285, grade C, carbon steel. The shell fractured at welded joints because of overstress during normal operation. Dimensions given in inches More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 69 Macrograph of broken rail showing the interconnection between the shell fracture (across the top) and the detail fracture (on the transverse plane). 3.5×. (R. Rungta, Battelle Columbus Laboratories) More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 172 Portion of the fracture shell plate in Fig. 171 near arrow. A and B indicate where sections were cut for further study. Fracture surface is shown in profile at bottom. 0.57× More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 177 Fractured shell of an 865-mm (34-in.) diam pressure vessel fabricated from a 32 by 2440 by 9145 mm (1 1 4 by 96 by 360 in.) plate of ASTM A515, grade 70, steel for pressure vessels. The shell broke during testing at an internal gage pressure of 8.3 MPa (1.2 ksi More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 182 View of the top segment of the fractured pressure-vessel shell in Fig. 177 , showing an area just to the right of the area in Fig. 181 . Again, chevron marks are visible and consistently point to the right. 0.25× More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 183 View of the bottom segment of the fractured shell in Fig. 177 , showing an area opposite the one in Fig. 182 . This view also reveals sharply defined chevron marks that point to the right. 0.45× More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 184 View of the top segment of the fractured shell in Fig. 177 , showing an area just to the left of the fracture origin. The continuity of the chevron marks that point toward location S (at right end) is much more perceptible here than in Fig. 179 because of a difference More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 186 View of the top segment of the fractured pressure-vessel shell in Fig. 177 , showing an area of the fracture surface just to the right of the crack nucleus. Note that here the chevron marks clearly point to the left, toward the fracture origin. The crack ends at far right, where More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 308 Deep “shell crack” and “detail fracture” in head of railroad rail removed from service. Composition of standard carbon rail steel: 0.60 to 0.82% C, 0.70 to 1.00% Mn, and 0.10 to 0.23% Si. Gage side of rail is at left. A 5- to 10-mm ( 1 4 - to 3 8 -in.) thick layer More
Image
Published: 01 January 2024
Fig. 11 Fracture surface bordering a leak in the shell of a boiler feedwater deaerator. Little evidence of a fracture mechanism or location of crack initiation was revealed by a detailed fractographic examination. More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... minutes after pouring. Cleaning After cooling, the castings are shaken out and moved to a cleaning area. The brittle ceramic shell fractures easily and tends to break off the casting surface. After initial abrasive blast cleaning, conventional cleaning techniques are implemented. Process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, brittle fracture, and in-service rotary bending fatigue fracture of fractured roof-truss angles, pressure-vessel shells, automotive axle shafts, broken keyed spindles, crane gears, blooming-mill spindles, automotive bolts, and crane wheels of these steels. axle shafts brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to meet because the material may be exposed to corrosive attack by various mediums. Therefore, damage to heat exchangers is often difficult to avoid. Characteristics of Tubing The primary function of tubes in a heat exchanger is to transfer heat from the shell side of the unit to the fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The fracture apparently initiated at the nozzle-1-to-shell junction on the head side and on the shell side, propagated around the head to the back side of the vessel, and continued down the back side of the shell. On the nozzle side, the fracture reinitiated on the far side of each of nozzles 1 and 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the shell plate material, the head material, and the nozzle material indicated that these materials had ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures above room temperature. Macroscopic observations of the fracture surfaces at nozzles 1 and 2 showed chevron patterns that allowed tracing the fracture to its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... Source: Ref 3 Example: Effect of Metal Thickness on Deep Drawing of Shells <xref rid="a0005101-ref7" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 7)</xref> The stock thickness and its relation to the diameter or width of the blank affects the formability of round, square, and rectangular shells. Stock thickness also...
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 181 View of the far left end of the top segment of the fractured pressure-vessel shell in Fig. 177 , showing chevron marks. The chevron marks were smeared subsequent to fracture, but can be clearly identified as pointing to the right. 0.3× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 10 Evaluation of the cut edge. h 1 , smooth cut section length in case of fracture; h 2 , the minimum smooth-cut section length in case of shell-shaped fracture; a , die-roll height; c , die-roll width; δ, the maximum width of the tearing band More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 179 View of the flange in Fig. 177 , showing an adjacent area of the fracture surface of the pressure-vessel shell. Although not as discernible here as in Fig. 184 , chevron marks throughout the fracture surface clearly point toward the area at S, and subsequent examination identified More