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Sea water

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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 3 A closed loop service water system typical for plants using sea water as the prime coolant. As the service loop is a closed-recirculating system, little make-up water is needed. More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 11 Applied stress versus life of tensile type specimens in simulated sea water for stainless steels More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 11 Applied stress versus life of tensile-type stainless steel specimens in simulated sea water More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., such as the Red Sea, where evaporation exceeds freshwater input. It will be lower than that range in estuaries and bays, where there is appreciable dilution from river input. Salinity variations in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean are shown in Fig. 3 ( Ref 5 ). The data for these figures, as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
.... Adapted from Ref 21 To compare the difference between pure water and a salt solution as quenchants, the cooling process of two stainless steel spheres (type 304 and zircaloy 702) was studied ( Ref 22 ). The spheres were quenched in deionized and sea water and the process was recorded by a video...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... sea water. The propagation rates in the test with the cathodic polarization were much higher than those in the test with natural corrosion potential, because hydrogen embrittlement accelerates the propagation. In a test program with several participating organizations ( Ref 23 ), duplex stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... service water system typical for plants using sea water as the prime coolant. As the service loop is a closed-recirculating system, little make-up water is needed. Materials of construction in service water systems vary from plant to plant. In many cases piping is constructed of unlined carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... however, that Cook Inlet, the North Sea, and other stormy waters may be oxygen saturated (and presumably carbon dioxide saturated) all the way to the bottom. Many operators prefer to use sacrificial anodes on offshore platforms because the SACP systems are simple and rugged. In addition, they become...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... , Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials , 1985 , p 324 – 336 5. Wilde B.E. , Critical Appraisal of Some Popular Laboratory Tests for Predicting the Localized Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Alloys in Sea Water , Corrosion , Vol 28 ( No. 8 ), Aug 1972 , p 283 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Cyclic acidified acetic salt fog ASTM G 85, A2 5% NaCl 1.0255–1.0400 2.8 to 3.0 (g) 1 Salt fog 49 120 N/A (wet bottom) 3 4 h … 2 Dry 49 120 7–40% 2 h 3 Soak 49 120 65–95% 3 1 4 h Acidified synthetic sea water (SWAAT test) ASTM G 85, A3 Synthetic sea...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... impact. For example, zebra mussels that originated in the Caspian Sea now have a negative economic impact of over $1 billion (U.S.) annually spent on prevention and removal. Zebra mussels grow aggressively, often blocking water intakes, and also consume vast amounts of nutrients, to the detriment...
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Published: 01 December 1998
communities of urban or city areas. Temperate marine atmospheres The length of service life of the galvanized coating in marine environments is influenced by proximity to the coastline and prevailing wind direction and intensity. In marine air, chlorides from sea spray can react with the normally More
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Published: 01 January 1994
communities of urban or city areas. Temperate marine atmospheres The length of service life of the galvanized coating in marine environments is influenced by proximity to the coastline and prevailing wind direction and intensity. In marine air, chlorides from sea spray can react with the normally More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... corrosion. It is highly resistant to sea water and high-octane gasoline fuels. The relatively high magnesium content gives this alloy further protection against corrosion by mild alkalis or salt spray. Alloy 535.0 has a number of applications. Aluminum 535.0 is used for armament, automotive and marine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... solutions Sea water Air, water vapor Copper alloys Ammonia vapors and solutions Amines Water, water vapor Gold alloys FeCl 3 solutions Acetic acid-salt solutions lnconel Caustic soda solutions Lead Lead acetate solutions Magnesium alloys NaCl-K 2 CrO 4 solutions Rural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... lists minimum properties of premium castings. Alloy 354.0 also has good high-temperature strength ( Tables 7 – 9 ). These alloys generally have excellent resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion. However, some stress corrosion was noted for the highest strength (T62) condition in sea water...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... access of oxygen to a metal surface reduce the corrosion rate and often stifle corrosion completely. In one instance, the effects of such parameters of the deep-sea environment as oxygen concentration, salinity, temperature, and pH were investigated. Some of the data from that study are given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... and nonferrous alloys Material Environment Aluminum alloys NaCl-H 2 O 2 solutions NaCl solutions Sea water Air, water vapor Copper alloys Ammonia vapors and solutions Amines Water, water vapor Gold alloys FeCl 3 solutions Acetic acid-salt solutions lnconel Caustic soda...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... fatigue limit MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi Mild steel Normalized … River water 260 38 32 4.6 0.12 0.21% C steel Annealed 490 71 22 Sea water 220 32 30 4.3 0.13 1035 600 87 29 6.8 percent salt water; complete immersion 280 41 170 25 0.61 1050 650 94...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the approximate corrosion rates of zinc in various waters, and Figure 3 illustrates the expected service life of galvanized coatings in areas exposed to salt spray influences ( Ref 13 ). Sea salts are mainly NaCl, with small amounts of calcium, magnesium, and manganese salts. Typical pH is about 8. Compared...