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Scanning electron microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the details of SEM-based techniques and specialized SEM instruments. It ends with example applications of various SEM modes. scanning electron microscopy electron beam-sample interaction Overview Introduction A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of instrument that magnifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article outlines the beam/sample interactions and the basic instrumental design of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which include the electron gun, probeforming column (consisting of magnetic electron lenses, apertures, and scanning coils), electron detectors, and vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has unique capabilities for analyzing fracture surfaces. This article discusses the basic principles and practice of SEM, with an emphasis on its applications in fractography. The topics include an introduction to SEM instrumentation, imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown various significant improvements since it first became available in 1965. These improvements include enhanced resolution, dependability, ease of operation, and reduction in size and cost. This article provides a detailed account...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Scanning electron microscopy. (a) Typical scanning electron microscope used in failure analysis photography. (b) Scanning electron microscope photograph of a fatigue fracture More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy backscattered electron images of Ti64 samples that were deposited via the LENS system using hatch widths of (a) 0.89 mm (0.035 in.), (b) 1.5 mm (0.06 in.), and (c) 2.0 mm (0.08 in.). The images show three different-sized scales of engineered porosities More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 9 Backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy image of corrosion products (dark spots) on a stainless steel hypotube. The lower atomic number of the nonmetallic deposit material appears darker than the underlying metal. More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 27 Resolved image acquired by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, with associated spectrum. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 28 Spectrum obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, with element identification. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 15 Microstructure (scanning electron microscopy image) of hot rolled 5150 steel heated in a simulated induction-hardening process at 300 °C/s to 900 °C (540 °F/s to 1650 °F) and then quenched to form a martensitic microstructure with visible ghost pearlite, identified by the white arrows More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 37 Scanning electron microscopy observation of Al-3Cu. (a) Spike probably formed by the last solidification of interdendritic liquid. (b) Deformed spike probably formed by necking of a solid bridge. Source: Ref 27 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 41 Scanning electron microscopy image of oxide inclusions in aluminum cast samples (fractured surface) More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 4 (a) Top and (b) cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy backscattered images of laser-induced calcium phosphate coating on Ti64 substrate. (c) Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image of the same sample. All images show the calcium- and phosphorus-rich region, denoted by “A.” More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 8 Scanning electron microscopy images of the inside surface of a blow-molded nylon balloon showing an elliptical-shaped defect oriented with the long axis parallel to the extrusion direction. Lighter arrows point to a particulate contaminant embedded in the surface of the defect. Courtesy More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 5 Scanning electron microscopy images of stainless steel hypotubes with (a) a typical smooth surface texture and (b) an unexpected rough surface texture. Pitting of the surface along the grain boundaries was likely due to chemical etching. More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 6 Scanning electron microscopy images of surface anomalies on (a) a cobalt-chromium alloy device and (b) a Nitinol device after electropolishing More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 7 Scanning electron microscopy images of cracks in laser-cut stents. The stainless steel stent in (a) has a fatigue crack that occurred during ultrasonic cleaning after laser cutting. The fracture in the Nitinol stent in (b) initiated in brittle, heat-affected material More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 30 Scanning electron microscopy image of surface relief created by the martensitic transformation in a single crystal of ZrO 2 . Source: Ref 32 . Reprinted with permission More