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SEM fractography

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 14 (a) Fracture surface and (b) SEM fractography of a coil that failed due to excessive decarburization More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...Abstract Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has unique capabilities for analyzing fracture surfaces. This article discusses the basic principles and practice of SEM, with an emphasis on its applications in fractography. The topics include an introduction to SEM instrumentation, imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for quantitative characterization. Development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), and more recently, of powerful digital image analysis equipment, has led to significant advances in quantitative fractography. Numerous quantitative correlations between the material properties such as strength, ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the application of SEM in fractography is discussed. The article covers the failure mechanisms of ductile failure, brittle failure, mixed-mode failure, and fatigue failure. Lastly, image dependence on microscope type and operating parameters is also discussed. fractography microstructure sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and vacuum system. It discusses the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM and describes the application of SEM in fractography. If the surface remains unaffected and undamaged by events subsequent to the actual failure, it is often...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and other specialized methods. The bulk of the observations by far are done with low-magnification optical microscopy, often using a stereographic microscope, and with higher-magnification SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... since the 1950s, and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have been commercially available for more than 35 years ( Ref 22 ). Today, the SEM is standard equipment for any laboratory performing failure analysis and fractography. The SEM offers significantly superior resolution and depth of field compared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... , and 101 are in order of increasing amounts of strain. Note how cracks propagate through the graphite rather than around it as is the case for ductile iron (see Fig. 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , Fig. 85 , and 86 ). SEM, all at 580× (R.C. Voigt and B. Pourlaidian, University of Kansas) Fig. 98 Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractographs without corrections (see Example 5 ). Other examples of the application of these new quantitative methods are given in this article for striation spacings ( Example 1 ), precision matching ( Example 2 ), crack path tortuosity ( Example 4 ), and the use...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is critical to seeing fracture markings. In the SEM, imaging techniques need to be matched to the specimen for best results, and stereographic pairs are extremely helpful in revealing the surface topography. Fractography should be well documented with notes, sketches, and photographs. In 1992, the U.S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis and fractography. The SEM offers significantly superior resolution and depth of field compared to light microscopes, markedly increasing the useful magnification range. Compared to transmission electron microscopes, the SEM permits examination of relatively large samples and produces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... June 1975, engineers at McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company prepared the SEM/TEM Fractography Handbook, which was subsequently published in December of 1975 ( Ref 115 ). Unique to this Volume were the numerous comparisons of scanning electron fractographs with transmission electron fractographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... , in The Corrosion Handbook , John Wiley & Sons , 1948 , p 1077 – 1083 9. Dahlberg E.P. and Zipp R.D. , Preservation and Cleaning of Fractures for Fractography—Update , Scan. Elec. Microsc. , No. 1 , 1981 , p 423 – 429 10. Pittinato G.F. et al. , SEM/TEM Fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... be directly examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (see the article “Scanning Electron Microscopy” in this Volume), but replicas offer the unique capability of transposing topographic information from the actual fracture surface to a high-resolution facsimile that can be conveniently handled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., to identify and interpret fracture morphologies by visual examination, light microscopy, or electron microscopy (particularly SEM), and to elucidate the benefits of fractography in determining the relationship of the mode of fracture to the microstructure, evaluating the responses of materials to mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.../M alloy was solution treated for 1 h at 510 °C (950 °F), water quenched, naturally aged, and then cold rolled to a 4% thickness reduction in one pass. The cracks at particle boundaries reflect the low ductility typical of aluminum-lithium alloys. SEM, 375× (R.E. Ricker, University of Notre Dame...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... microscope in 1965, the field of microfractography gained popular applicability. Although microfractography by SEM is a much simpler technique that produces equivalent images with far greater depth of field, the use of the light microscope in fractography should not be discarded. Lack of access...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the grain boundaries ( Ref 6 ). In many instances, SEM fractography provides a means to identify the fracture path as IG, but it may yield little other information. However, important clues on the underlying cause of IG separation may be revealed by fractography at assorted magnifications, because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination of the fracture surface today (variable pressure SEM for polymeric materials). Optical light fractography is still used today for examination of glasses, but the common tool of choice for metallic materials is the SEM, in part because of the increased depth of field and higher magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and the sample was broken in four-point bending at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min (0.02 in./min). Fig. 1278 : Fracture surface shows radial crack lines emanating from the origin, which was a corrosion pit (top). SEM (30° tilt), 115×. Fig. 1279 : Close-up of pit-ceramic interface reveals preferential grain...