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SEM analysis

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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 6 Techniques of surface topography analysis. SEM, scanning electron microscope; AFM, atomic force microscope More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 36 SEM fracture-surface analysis of the failed hip prosthesis shown in Fig. 33 . (a) Fracture surface showing three distinct grains labeled A, B, and C. (b) Grain A has a shallow crystallographically oriented fracture structure. (c) Grain B has a crystallographically oriented fracture More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of an SEM contains the sample and the primary detectors for imaging and analysis. Specimen chambers range in size from small enclosures used for tabletop SEMs housing centimeter-sized samples, to medium-range sizes typical for research-grade SEMs capable of handling up to ~20 cm (8 in.) samples, to large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... may include visual, optical microscopy, x-ray, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, surface interferometry, or other techniques that do not cause permanent changes to the device. Nondestructive examination may also include dimensional analysis of the device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Scanning electron microscopy instruments combined with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) attachment (also referred to as EDX) allow the elemental chemical analysis of plastic materials. The EDS analysis with an SEM instrument can produce additional information for the plastic surfaces. The SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of metal powders, surface analysis should be approached with great care. Typically, microfocus electron beam techniques are the only solution for this. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) system can provide qualitative analysis...
Book Chapter

By Bo Hu
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... for internal porosity with typical magnifications from 50 to 1000×. Both types of scopes can be used to analyze particle size. However, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) can cover all works run by optical macro- and microscopes. In addition, it can perform elemental analysis on the particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in failure analysis than the more exact instrumentation employed in SEMs, the technology is advancing and is worthy of note due to its capability for nondestructive analysis and application in the field. This article begins with information on the basis of the x-ray signal. This is followed by information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... available for in situ fracture studies and have application in the kinematic analysis of deformation. These features make SEM an ideal tool for the study of fracture surfaces. Different fracture modes exhibit unique features that are easily documented by SEM. This article will discuss the basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chromatography; LC/MS: liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; LEISS: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Information obtained/method Elemental Structural Morphological Bulk X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) Combustion/inert fusion analysis (LECO) X-ray diffraction (XRD) Macrophotography (b) Micro Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Electron probe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of the resolution and depth of field by several orders of magnitude. This enables images of much higher magnification in the SEM (>100,000×) and a greater depth of field of up to 100 times that of light microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis information can also be obtained using an energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Fig. 7 SEM image showing the drawing defect line at the initiation site of the fatigue crack in Fig. 6 , magnification 400× Fig. 8 SEM image showing the initiation site in Fig. 7 at higher magnification. Magnification 1500× Metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and hardness...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the surface (this is particularly widely used in microelectronics applications) Spatial Resolution Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm (same as SEM) Auger electron characterization of elemental chemistry: 10 to 20 nm; sampling depth: ∼1 nm Elemental Analysis Detection...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... analysis have difficulty detecting and analyzing elements with atomic numbers less than ∼7 (nitrogen); older instruments with beryllium window detector cannot detect elements with atomic numbers lower than ∼11 (sodium). Sample Requirements Sample size up to ∼5 cm can be accommodated by most SEMs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information from a sample. Thus, the analytical capabilities of an SEM cover a wide range of information, and accessories can be chosen to suit the particular interests of the user. Scanning electron microscopes have been found particularly useful in failure analysis investigations. This is true...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 1 Depth of analysis, depth of profiling, and length scale presentation in surface examination and analysis of polymers. AFM, atomic force microscopy; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; ToF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; EDS More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to reveal grain boundaries on unetched samples and domain boundaries in ferromagnetic alloys; and the use of voltage contrast, electron beam-induced currents, and cathodoluminescence for the characterization and failure analysis of semiconductor devices. The article compares the features of SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... than the iron particles (3A and 7). Note also that the fibers seen in (a) are invisible in this backscatter imaging mode. The SEM backscatter mode is often useful for rough composition analysis. The backscattered image in Fig. 1(b) provides a fast and economical method of getting a general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... interests of the user. Scanning electron microscopes have been found particularly useful in failure analysis investigations. This is true for a number of reasons, the most prominent being the ability of the SEM to image large, nonflat samples from low to high magnifications (approximately 10× to greater...