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Rockwell hardness test

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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 44 Example of a Rockwell hardness test where the sample is too thin. Although materials this thin are seldom induction hardened, the same principle applies when a heavy load is used on a thin case. The test impression effectively “punches through” the case and the soft core affects More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 7 Typical anvils for Rockwell hardness testing. (a) Standard spot, flat, and V anvils. (b) Testing table for large workpieces. (c) Cylinder anvil. (d) Diamond spot anvil. (e) Eyeball anvil More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 11 Setup for Rockwell hardness testing of inner surfaces of cylindrical workpieces, using a gooseneck adapter More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3 Schematic of hardness (Rockwell C) test traverses made on a series of steel bars of the same composition but with different diameters. Adapted from Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article describes the principal methods for macroindentation hardness testing by the Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell methods. For each method, the test types and indenters, scale limitations, testing machines, calibration, indenter selection and geometry, load selection...
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 5 Indentation in a workpiece made by application of (a) the minor load, and (b) the major load, on a diamond Brale indenter in Rockwell hardness testing. The hardness value is based on the difference in depths of indentation produced by the minor and major loads. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... but is generally used as a pass/fail evaluation Hardness testing Macroindentation hardness testing Rockwell hardness Hardness Need smooth surface finish, flat surface, and parallel sides Sample must fit within the machine and be balanced on the pedestal Brinell hardness Hardness Need smooth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article reviews the factors that have a significant effect on the selection and interpretation of results of different hardness tests, namely, Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, and Knoop tests. The factors concerned include hardness level (and scale limitations), specimen thickness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Because of the relatively large indentations, the workpiece may not be usable after testing. The limit of hardness range—about 11 HB with the 500 kg load to 627 HB with the 3000 kg load—is generally considered the practical range. Rockwell Hardness Testing Rockwell hardness testing is the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... according to ASTM B294, “Standard Test Method for Hardness Testing of Cemented Carbides,” ( Ref 1 ) and ISO 3738 ( Ref 3 ) and Vickers hardness according to ISO 3878 ( Ref 3 ) are standard hardness tests within the cemented carbide industry. Rockwell hardness on the A scale uses a spheroconical diamond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in deforming the test surface. Since the indenter is pressed into the material during testing, hardness is also viewed as the ability of a material to resist compressive loads. The indenter may be spherical (Brinell test), pyramidal (Vickers and Knoop tests), or conical (Rockwell test). In the Brinell, Vickers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) 61.5 A 3.53 43.1 61.0 A 4.00 32.0 62.0 D 3.30 54.0 62.5 D 3.60 48.7 60.5 (a) Measured by conventional Rockwell C test. (b) Hardness of matrix, measured with superficial hardness tester and converted to Rockwell C. (c) Although this value was obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article presents the different hardness test methods used to measure the effectiveness of surface carbon control in carburized parts of steel. Common test methods include Rockwell hardness measurements, superficial Rockwell 15N testing, and microhardness testing. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... may provide acceptable results, the GM SPEAR procedure ( Ref 1 ) is well documented, explained in good detail, and in general use throughout most of industry. Use standardized test blocks, not production parts. For Rockwell scales, test blocks should have a nominal hardness value within 10 Rockwell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and commercially pure aluminum, hardness testing usually is done with the Rockwell F, E, and H scales. For hardness testing of thin gages of aluminum, the 15T and 30T scales of the Rockwell superficial tester are recommended. Source: ASTM E 140 Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for wrought coppers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...). Conversely, identical indentation diameters for both types of ball will correspond to different Vickers and Rockwell values. Thus, if indentation in two different specimens both are 2.75 mm diameter (495 HB), the specimen tested with a standard ball has a Vickers hardness of 539, whereas the specimen tested...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hardness conversions are empirical relationships that are defined by conversion tables limited to specific categories of materials. This article summarizes hardness conversion formulas for various materials in a table. It tabulates the approximate Rockwell B and Rockwell C hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0006001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...). Conversely, identical indentation diameters for both types of ball will correspond to different Vickers and Rockwell values. Thus, if indentation in two different specimens both are 2.75 mm diameter (495 HB), the specimen tested with a standard ball has a Vickers hardness of 539, whereas the specimen tested...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Hardness conversions are empirical relationships defined by conversion tables limited to specific categories of materials. This article is a collection of tables that present approximate Rockwell B hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels as per ASTM E 140 and approximate...