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Rockwell hardness numbers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Hardness Testing The Rockwell hardness test is defined in ASTM E 18 and several other standards ( Table 1 ). Rockwell hardness testing differs from Brinell testing in that the Rockwell hardness number is based on the difference of indenter depth from two load applications ( Fig. 1 ). Initially a minor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...). Low-and high-powered microscopes (Brinell, Vickers, and microindentation) also help measure the resulting indentation diagonals from which a hardness number is calculated using a formula. In the Rockwell test, the depth of indentation is measured and converted to a hardness number, which is inversely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... cast irons. It informs that when making hardness correlations, it is best to consult ASTM E 140. The article tabulates the approximate Rockwell B hardness and Rockwell C hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels according to ASTM E 140. It also tabulates the approximate equivalent hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hardness for heat treated carbon and alloy steels, almost all constructional alloy steels, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The tables are also summarized in graphical form in Fig. 1 . Approximate Rockwell B hardness conversion numbers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article presents a comprehensive collection of tables that list Rockwell hardness and superficial hardness numbers for wrought aluminum products, wrought coppers, and cartridge brass. hardness number Rockwell hardness wrought aluminum wrought coppers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0006001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... numbers for nonaustenitic steels, and approximate equivalent hardness numbers for Brinell and Vickers (diamond pyramid) hardness numbers for steels are provided. Brinell hardness hardness hardness number Rockwell hardness steel Vickers hardness FROM A PRACTICAL STANDPOINT, it is important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... hardness numbers for wrought aluminum products Table 1 Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for wrought aluminum products Brinell hardness No., 500 kgf, 10 mm ball, HBS Vickers hardness No., 15 kgf, HV Rock well hardness No. Rockwell superficial hardness No. B scale, 100 kgf, 1 16...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract Hardness conversions are empirical relationships defined by conversion tables limited to specific categories of materials. This article is a collection of tables that present approximate Rockwell B hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels as per ASTM E 140...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...). In the Brinell, Vickers, and Knoop tests, hardness value is the load supported by unit area of the indentation, expressed in kilograms per square millimeter (kgf/mm 2 ). In the Rockwell tests, the depth of indentation at a prescribed load is determined and converted to a hardness number (without measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... supported by the unit area of the indentation. In the Rockwell tests, the depth of indentation at a prescribed load is determined and converted to a unitless hardness number. Hardness, although apparently simple in concept, is a property that represents an effect of complex elastic and plastic stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... may provide acceptable results, the GM SPEAR procedure ( Ref 1 ) is well documented, explained in good detail, and in general use throughout most of industry. Use standardized test blocks, not production parts. For Rockwell scales, test blocks should have a nominal hardness value within 10 Rockwell...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... from Brinell hardness testing in that the hardness is determined by the depth of indentation made by a constant load impressed upon an indenter. Although a number of different indenters are use for Rockwell hardness testing, the most common type is a diamond ground to a 120° cone with a spherical apex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627081818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... known as the SAC number. The code consists of a set of three two-digit numbers, e.g., SAC No. 63-52-42. This indicates a surface hardness of 63 HRC, a Rockwell-inch area of 52, and a center hardness, of 42 HRC. The computation of area is shown in Fig. 4 . Fig. 4 SAC estimation of area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Scleroscope hardness Rockwell C hardness number, HRC Vickers hardness number, HV Brinell hardness number, HB 10 mm standard ball, 3000 kgf load 10 mm carbide ball, 3000 kgf load 97.3 68 940 … … 95.0 67 900 … … 92.7 66 865 … … 90.6 65 832 … 739 88.5 64 800 … 722...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... hot isostatic pressing HK Knoop hardness hp horsepower HR Rockwell hardness (requires scale designation, such as HRC for Rockwell C hardness) HREM high-resolution electron microscopy HSLA high-strength, low-alloy (steel) HSS high-speed steel(s) HTLA heat-treatable low-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... for Determination of Coercivity (Hcs) of Cemented Carbides,” ( Ref 1 ) and ISO 3326 ( Ref 3 ) provides an indirect measurement of the average grain size. Coercive force, ranging from 0 to 32 kA/m (0 to 400 Oersted, Oe), increases with decreasing binder content and grain size. Rockwell hardness on the A scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... the maximum attainable hardness chart such as Table 1 using the carbon range that will give the required surface hardness. The commercially accepted range for surface hardness after tempering is 5 HRC points or 40 HB points (with Brinell numbers corresponding to indent diameters in 0.05 mm increments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with an angle of 136° between opposite faces in order to obtain hardness numbers that would be as close as possible to Brinell hardness numbers for the same specimens. This made the Vickers test easy to adopt, and it rapidly gained acceptance. Unlike Rockwell tests, the Vickers test has the great advantage...