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Rayleigh wave defect detection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It reviews the methods for using Rayleigh waves for defect detection and materials characterization, alongside nonlinear ultrasonic inspection and surface acoustic wave (SAW) microscopy. The article concludes with information on the standards that use Rayleigh waves for nondestructive evaluation (NDE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of longitudinal wave and Rayleigh surface acoustic waves. It concludes with information on the applications of nonlinear ultrasonics. nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive examination nonlinear ultrasonic materials characterization flaw-detection longitudinal wave Rayleigh surface acoustic waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... illustrated in Fig. 6 . These waves, and their applications, are discussed in the article “Rayleigh Wave Nondestructive Evaluation for Defect Detection and Materials Characterization” in this Volume. Fig. 6 Diagram of surface (Rayleigh) waves propagating at the surface of a metal along a metal-air...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be transmitted. The same is true of a liquid, unless it is particularly viscous or is present as a very thin layer. Surface Waves Surface waves (Rayleigh waves) are another type of ultrasonic waves used in the inspection of metals. These waves travel along the flat and curved surfaces of relatively thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... manner. When the laser beam is focused to a small circular spot, a surface wave with a cylindrical symmetry is emitted from this spot. Its amplitude has a maximum when the laser pulse duration is approximately D / V R , where D is the spot diameter and V R the Rayleigh velocity of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for values of the ratio of the circumference to the wavelength less than 0.3, and scattering varies as the fourth power of this ratio. Ratios below 0.3 lie in what is known as the Rayleigh region. Mathematically, the dielectric constant and loss factor are expressed in combined forms as a complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... macrocracks, and voids in composites structures. The ultrasonic method itself uses longitudinal, shear, Lamb, Rayleigh, or guided waves for various measurements on composite materials. Wave parameters, including acoustic attenuation and speed, can be used to determine materials properties and characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., matrix macrocracks, and voids in composite structures. The ultrasonic method itself uses longitudinal, shear, Lamb, Rayleigh, or guided waves for various measurements on composite materials. Wave parameters, including acoustic attenuation and speed, can be used to determine materials properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... fitness for service. Increasing implementation of advanced-life and retirement-for-cause strategies has driven research to assess defect type and size. These trends have called for more comprehensive defect characterization and more attention on detection reliability, imaging, and sizing, together...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... be used in the pitch-catch configuration, where one MC is the T-coil and the other the R-coil; this configuration is commonly used for generating bulk shear-vertical waves for defect detection and sizing. If L S is approximately one plate thickness, these two MCs may be used for thickness gaging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... microscope can image several millimeters or more into most samples and is ideal for analyzing at a specific depth. Because of a very large top surface reflection from the sample, this type of microscope is not effective in the zone immediately below the surface unless the Rayleigh wave mode to scan near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... is selected for each specific application. The surface (Rayleigh) wave search unit is an angle-beam unit insofar as it uses a wedge to position the crystal at an angle to the surface of the testpiece. It generates surface waves by mode conversion, where the wedge angle is chosen so that the shear wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and eddy-current NDE full-body scans in a single pass ( Ref 2 , 5 ), which saves on time and equipment space requirements. Combination systems typically include multiple orientations of transducers, receivers, probes, and sensors so they can detect defects in multiple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... that residual induction, Br , in a weak field (Rayleigh region) is determined by the Rayleigh coefficient, ν, which is much higher for the pearlite-ferrite structure than for martensite: B r = ν H m 2 / 2 This was confirmed in a recent investigation by Nakagawa et al. ( Ref 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... before the defect in the surface forms, because it propagates on the surface of the material as Rayleigh waves ( Ref 2 ), and the displacement of these waves is measured by AE sensors that are almost always a piezoelectric crystal, commonly made from a ceramic. On the other hand, vibration analysis...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... characteristics of the finished product and continue research on new bodies and glazes Develop new materials Search for the origin of defects (such as impurities) or problems (such as lack of homogeneity) in the intermediate or finished product Establish the possibilities of total process automation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) at the back of the eye ( Fig. 11 ) and are said to be just resolved if they meet Rayleigh’s criterion, which broadly states that resolution is possible if they are separated by the width of their PSF. If not, then they are perceived as one object ( Fig. 12 ). Fig. 11 Two point sources and their point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in the intensity distribution appears as 75% of the peak intensity ( Fig. 3b ). This distance is defined as the Rayleigh criterion, which is generally accepted as the definition of the image-resolution limit. Therefore, the resolution of microscopy to distinguish two point objects is given as: (Eq 2) R...