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Rayleigh surface acoustic waves

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8 Schematic of instrumentation used to measure Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAW). Source: Ref 36 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of longitudinal wave and Rayleigh surface acoustic waves. It concludes with information on the applications of nonlinear ultrasonics. nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive examination nonlinear ultrasonic materials characterization flaw-detection longitudinal wave Rayleigh surface acoustic waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the methods for using Rayleigh waves for defect detection and materials characterization, alongside nonlinear ultrasonic inspection and surface acoustic wave (SAW) microscopy. The article concludes with information on the standards that use Rayleigh waves for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in Eq 1 , where convenient. On the basis of the mode of particle displacement, ultrasonic waves are classified as longitudinal waves, transverse (shear) waves, surface (Rayleigh) waves, and Lamb waves. These four types of waves are described in the following sections ( Ref 1 , 5 ). Longitudinal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be transmitted. The same is true of a liquid, unless it is particularly viscous or is present as a very thin layer. Surface Waves Surface waves (Rayleigh waves) are another type of ultrasonic waves used in the inspection of metals. These waves travel along the flat and curved surfaces of relatively thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...), where F (β) = 1 for β = 0 for the free surface BC The total EMAT system response, its transfer impedance, is given by (acoustic energy loss due to attenuation and beam spread as the wave propagates through the specimen is not included): (Eq 1) Z T = Z TI F L ( M ) F L ( C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-surface regions is used along with wide-aperture transducers. The scanning acoustic microscope uses this Rayleigh wave mode and is designed for very high-resolution images of the surface and near-surface regions of a sample. Penetration depth is intrinsically limited, however, to only one wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... is selected for each specific application. The surface (Rayleigh) wave search unit is an angle-beam unit insofar as it uses a wedge to position the crystal at an angle to the surface of the testpiece. It generates surface waves by mode conversion, where the wedge angle is chosen so that the shear wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... manner. When the laser beam is focused to a small circular spot, a surface wave with a cylindrical symmetry is emitted from this spot. Its amplitude has a maximum when the laser pulse duration is approximately D / V R , where D is the spot diameter and V R the Rayleigh velocity of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., matrix macrocracks, and voids in composite structures. The ultrasonic method itself uses longitudinal, shear, Lamb, Rayleigh, or guided waves for various measurements on composite materials. Wave parameters, including acoustic attenuation and speed, can be used to determine materials properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... macrocracks, and voids in composites structures. The ultrasonic method itself uses longitudinal, shear, Lamb, Rayleigh, or guided waves for various measurements on composite materials. Wave parameters, including acoustic attenuation and speed, can be used to determine materials properties and characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for values of the ratio of the circumference to the wavelength less than 0.3, and scattering varies as the fourth power of this ratio. Ratios below 0.3 lie in what is known as the Rayleigh region. Mathematically, the dielectric constant and loss factor are expressed in combined forms as a complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... before the defect in the surface forms, because it propagates on the surface of the material as Rayleigh waves ( Ref 2 ), and the displacement of these waves is measured by AE sensors that are almost always a piezoelectric crystal, commonly made from a ceramic. On the other hand, vibration analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... that neglects the effects of surface tension, viscosity, and noncondensable gas is the Rayleigh equation ( Ref 12 , 13 ): (Eq 2) R R ¨ + 3 2 R ˙ 2 = − p ∞ − p v ρ where R is the bubble radius, p v is the vapor pressure, p ∞ is the pressure applied to the bubble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... E2491 ( Ref 20 ). ASME Reference Plate The ASME reference plate is another type of standard reference block (ASME N-625), shown in Fig. 9 , that can be used for longitudinal-, shear-, and surface-wave sensitivity calibrations in both straight-beam and angle-beam inspection. It should be noted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... that residual induction, Br , in a weak field (Rayleigh region) is determined by the Rayleigh coefficient, ν, which is much higher for the pearlite-ferrite structure than for martensite: B r = ν H m 2 / 2 This was confirmed in a recent investigation by Nakagawa et al. ( Ref 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the laser systems and associated safety features as well as the high-end computer processing requirements. Fig. 18 Laser ultrasonic system Laser ultrasonic systems generate mechanical waves in a part by heating a point on the surface with a high-powered laser (typically carbon dioxide...