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Pourbaix model

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... This article discusses the principles and applications of various models developed for understanding the corrosion mechanism. These models include mechanistic models, including Pourbaix model, thermophysical module, electrochemical module, and ion association model; risk-based models; and knowledge models...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... − , Cl − , NO 3 − , and CO 3 − contaminants. However, the effects of other species can be taken into account, using more complex Pourbaix diagrams ( Ref 13 ) or through thermodynamic modeling software. For example, the presence of SO 4 2− , Cl − , NO 3 − , and CO 3 − ions...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article reviews the types of passivity and presents tactics that employ passivity to control corrosion. Thermodynamics provides a guide to the conditions under which passivation becomes possible. A valuable guide to thermodynamics is the potential-pH diagram and the Pourbaix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... reaction) must be consumed by an electrochemical reduction reaction (the cathodic reaction). Potential-pH ( E -pH) diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams), based on equilibrium thermodynamics for metal-water systems, show at a glance the regions of stability of the various phases that can exist in the system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Reaction Modeling. Concepts and Applications , Oxford University Press , 1996 , 397 p 14. Nordstrom D.K. and Munoz J.L. , Geochemical Thermodynamics , 2nd ed. , Blackwell , 1994 15. Pourbaix M. , Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions , Pergamon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... by the Pourbaix diagram ( Ref 3 ). For CMP, it is advantageous to operate in a passivating region. For the copper-water system, this happens at intermediate pH range, where oxide film formation (as described by Eq. 3 ) occurs. Copper readily corrodes in oxidizing solutions. In addition, under the right...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... by the combustion of fossil fuels. It explains how salt chemistry, including acid/base and oxidizing properties, affects corrosion rates and mechanisms. The article also provides information on electrochemical testing and explains how Pourbaix methods, normally associated with aqueous corrosion, can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... corrosion resistance and surface treatment. It describes the thermodynamics of equilibrium oxidation processes and non-equilibrium corrosion processes. The article provides a discussion on aluminum oxidation under atmospheric and dynamic conditions. It presents the potential/pH (Pourbaix) diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... THE PRINCIPLE OF POTENTIAL-pH DIAGRAMS was established in the 1940s in Belgium by Marcel Pourbaix ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). A potential- pH diagram is a graphical representation of the relations, derived from the Nernst equation, between the pH and the equilibrium potentials ( E ) of the most probable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...,” “Electrode Potentials,” and “Potential Measurements with Reference Electrodes.” With these basic notions defined, it is possible to explain the principle of potential-pH ( E -pH) diagrams in the article “Potential versus pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams.” These diagrams allow us to visualize in a practical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... − ), solid-state oxides (NiO, Ni 3 O 4 , Ni 2 O 3 , NiO 2 ) and hydroxides Ni(OH) 2 as a function of potential and pH. Such a composite potential/pH diagram, known as a Pourbaix diagram, is shown in Fig. 5 for Ni/H 2 O. Superimposed on these stability regions are the equilibrium relationships for the H 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... reaction (see Pourbaix, Ref 10 , and Evans, Ref 11 , diagrams for thermodynamic and kinetic information, respectively). In the case of corrosion in an aqueous medium, the main cathodic processes, which are summarized in the following paragraphs, are easy to identify because of the ubiquitous presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... theoretically, but its practical use is limited. See the articles “Electrode Potentials” and “Potential versus pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams” in Volume 13A, ASM Handbook , 2003. One of the useful associated parameters from the Nernst equation is the standard electrode potential for classification purposes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ppm Cl 350–550 660–1020 Uniform and other forms Ref 17 Alumina, SiC, Si 3 N 4 , zirconia, sapphire HCl plus H 2 O 2 465 870 Generally low resistance to degradation Ref 23 (a) Acids measurable as wt% Figure 4 presents the potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagram for iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is that glasses have spectra that are usually similar to those of the corresponding molten electrolyte. This led to use of molten salts as models for glass systems. Molten salts can be condensed at temperatures well below T g , the glass transition temperature, to form glassy salts. Polymers Polymers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the corresponding molten electrolyte. This led to use of molten salts as models for glass systems. Molten salts can be condensed at temperatures well below T g , the glass transition temperature, to form glassy salts. Polymers Polymers have traditionally been structurally analyzed using infrared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...% NaOH solution at 288 °C (550 °F). (a) Alloy 600. (b) Alloy 800. (c) AISI type 304 stainless steel Application of Potential-pH Diagrams Critical potentials for SCC can also be related to potential-pH stability diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams) because these diagrams describe the conditions at which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in a potential-pH, or Pourbaix diagram, as described elsewhere in this Volume. The key feature in determining whether or not a particular corrosion reaction can proceed is the difference in equilibrium potentials ( E e ) for the two component electrochemical half-reactions, as illustrated in Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... organisms on these environmental variables is also an important consideration. Thermodynamics provides a theoretical framework within which the effects of several environmental variables might be pictured. In aqueous corrosion, the format often used is the potential-pH diagram, or Pourbaix diagram ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... as well as galvanic interactions between uranium, its alloys, and other metals. As with any metal, thermodynamics and kinetics govern the rate and type of corrosion. The Pourbaix diagram for uranium in water ( Fig. 1 , Ref 3 ) predicts stable, room-temperature phases based on electrochemical...