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Pipeline steel

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Stepwise cracking of a low-strength pipeline steel exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). 6× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 40 Hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline steel More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 8 Stepwise cracking of a low-strength pipeline steel exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Original magnification: 6× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 40 Hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline steel More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 Stepwise cracking of a low-strength pipeline steel exposed to H 2 S. 6× More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 15 Effect of rare-earth additions on impact properties of Al-Si killed X65 pipeline steel. More
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Published: 01 December 1998
-65 pipeline steel. (c) Relationship between transverse Charpy V-notch (CVN) energy and rare earth metal sulfur ratio ( 2 3 -size Charpy specimens) at −18 °C (−1 °F). (d) Relationship between shelf energy determined on longitudinal and transverse 1 2 -size Charpy V-notch specimens More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses the failure analysis of several steel transmission pipeline failures, describes the causes and characteristics of specific pipeline failure modes, and introduces pipeline failure prevention and integrity management practices and methodologies. In addition...
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 80 Effect of hydrogen on the fatigue fracture appearance of a grade X42 pipeline steel. (a) Tested in dry nitrogen gas at a stress intensity range of Δ K = 20 MPa m (18 ksi in. ), a load ratio of R = 0.1, and a cyclic frequency of 5 Hz. (b) Tested in dry hydrogen gas More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... into the types of polymer-based coatings that are both cost-effective and widely accepted in the pipeline industry. Why Do We Need Pipeline Coatings? Corrosion is the greatest danger to buried steel pipelines. Uncontrolled corrosion of the pipe wall leads to leaks, service interruptions, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Bradford to Allentown, PA in 1879 ( Ref 5 ). Since the late 1920s, virtually all oil and gas pipelines have been made of welded steel. Although the first cross-country pipeline that connected some major cities was laid in 1930, it was not until World War II that large-scale pipelines were laid connecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... was 0.088 mm/yr (3.5 mils/yr), a value that was consistent with that reported for steel in soils. A probe attached to the pipeline, and thus the CP system, showed an order of magnitude lower corrosion rate, 0.008 mm/yr (0.3 mil/yr), as would be expected. Another type of ER probe was used to determine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... then, the formulations have been improved and adapted for other functional coating uses. These include internal liners for pipelines, the corrosion/primer part of three-layer polyolefin pipe coatings, and corrosion coatings for reinforcing steel (rebar) ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) provides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1000 psi) and are made of steel pipes welded or mechanically coupled together. Since the 1940s, all of the lines have been assembled by welding. The third type of pipeline is a gas-distribution line that mainly transports natural gas within cities at pressures that vary from several tens of pounds per...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... investigations included the influence of plastic deformation and fatigue and tensile and cyclic loading ( Ref 9 , 18 ). A large number of earlier works targeted the MBN evaluation of pipeline and plain carbon steels, including the influence of elastic and plastic stress ( Ref 19 ), stress concentration around...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... connection and by installing a second anode ( Fig. 1b ). Thus, both pipe and tank were protected without stray- current effects. Fig. 1 Cathodic-protection system for a buried steel tank. (a) The original design that caused local failure of a nearby unprotected buried pipeline by stray-current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... pipelines. The article reviews methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for pipelines. Real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations are discussed. The article also presents the case studies for multi-technique electrochemical corrosion monitoring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... sparks if they fall from their supports and strike steel. Zinc bracelet anodes are also used on pipelines. Again, they would be the preferred choice in brackish or freshwater and bottom mud. Because large-diameter marine pipelines must be buoyancy compensated, the increased weight of zinc can...
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 1 Cathodic-protection system for a buried steel tank. (a) The original design that caused local failure of a nearby unprotected buried pipeline by stray-current corrosion. (b) Improved design. Installation of a second anode and an insulated buss connection provided protection for both More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... direction indicates a stifling of corrosion through passivation or the formation of insoluble protective corrosion products. For example, newly laid insulated steel pipelines may have an average potential in excess of −0.8 V with respect to a copper/copper sulfate reference electrode, whereas old corroded...