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Pipe bends

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with outer diameter 800 mm (31.5 in.), wall thickness 50 mm (2 in.); ferritic material, part-through-wall crack, σ fl = ( R p0.2 + R m )/2.4 Fig. 9 Constant moment loading bending device with capacity of 2 MN · m. Inset shows instrumented pipe after the test Fig. 10 Bending device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005891
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... conditions of billets and bars. The article describes the most appropriate processes to improve end heating process effectiveness. Induction bending of narrow circumferential band of pipe or tube is also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on stress relieving of pipe ends and welded areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... Dimensions given in inches Fig. 10 Automobile exhaust pipe produced in an automatic hydraulic bending press. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 9 Essential components and mechanics of a bending press Fig. 11 Coiling a helix from round steel tubing by three-roll bending Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... range of dies for many different operations: bending, flanging, drawing, cutoff, parting, blanking, hemming, curling, staking, notching, coining, piercing, ribbing, lancing, corrugating, beading, seaming, pipe forming, channel forming, embossing, bulging, trimming, perforating, slotting, shearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., the work metal, the bend radius, the number of bends in the workpiece, the accuracy required, and the amount of flattening that can be tolerated. Two additional methods for pipe bending are wrinkle bending and roll-extrusion bending. Fig. 14 Schematics of bending methods. Source: Ref 41...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... are bent in the field. Cold field bending ( Fig. 7 ) is used to adjust the pipe to match changes in terrain along the pipeline route. Because of transportation issues, it is frequently more convenient to bend pipe sections in the field than at the coating mill. Cold bending can be performed up to an angle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... specimens in plate and pipe test weldments, respectively. Figure 7 shows the configuration of tension and bend specimens. The details of specimen size, orientation, removal, testing, and acceptance are provided in the welding code or standard or by references to ASTM International test standards or AWS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... for friction welding Tests for full-penetration groove welds include tension, bend, and toughness tests. It is also common to subject weldments to chemical analysis, hardness tests, and metallurgical examinations. Figures 1 and 2 indicate the location of tension and bend specimens in plate and pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Miscellaneous causes Secondary loads Weldments to pipe surface Wrinkle bends Internal combustion Sabotage Longitudinal weld defects High-hardness region (b) (a) Electric flash welding, electric-resistance welding, or electric-induction welding without the addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., waves that are guided by the shape of the test object. In the case of pipelines, they are guided along the wall of the pipe, following the bends and changes in direction of the line. The material properties of the pipe and the specific choice of the guided wave mode and frequency determine the wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of seamless tubing and pipe. Bending is a common metalworking operation in which bendability is defined as the minimum bend radius, R (measured to the inner surface of the bent part), to which a sheet metal can be bent without cracking of its outer surface. It is usually given as the minimum R / T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...” tests and face or root bend tests) can be run, but these were not used in this case. Similarly, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing, and penetrant testing were not used in this characterization. Fig. 7 Radiograph showing positive image of macroscopically visible defects in the X-65 pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Example 2: Rupture of a Ferritic Steel Return Bend Because of Inclusions After 2 years of service, a return bend from a triolefin-unit heater ruptured ( Fig. 3a ). The bend was made from 115-mm (4 1 2 -in.) schedule 40 (6.0 mm, or 0.237-in., wall thickness) pipe of ASTM A213, grade T11...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Fig. 1 Setup for contour roll forming of coiled stock (postcut method) Fig. 7 Typical sequences for forming round pipes and tubes. (a to c) With a butt-welded longitudinal seam. (d) With a lock-seam joint. Fig. 8 Typical sequences for roll forming tubing from strip material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) Fig. 1320, 1321 Failure of polyethylene copolymer pipe due to slow crack growth. The 60-mm (2.4-in.) diam, 6-mm (0.25-in.) wall thickness, extruded gas pipe (density 0.937 g/cm 3 ) failed after 211 h in a laboratory test at 80 °C (175 °F) and an internal water pressure of 17 kPa (120 psi). Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., because different combinations of these letters may apply to the same orientation of specimen in base metal. For instance, in a girth weld in a pipe, the long direction of the weld is the hoop direction of the pipe, not the longitudinal or axial direction of the pipe. Fracture toughness testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... gas-dryer piping Table 2 Compositions and thicknesses of layers of corrosion product found on inner surface of low-carbon steel gas-dryer piping Layer (see Fig. 4c ) Carbon, % (a) Sulfur, % (b) Stoichiometric ratio Probable composition Approximate thickness mm in. 1 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005873
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... pipe end heating. See text. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 4 Mechanical properties of 4340 steel hardened by oil quenching and tempered for 1 h at various temperatures. Source: Ref 8 , 47 Fig. 5 Relationship between bending fatigue endurance limit and surface residual stresses for various...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and fouling, and fabrication defects, which include most incidents of poor workmanship, improper material, and defective material, together account for more than 75% of all failures of steam-power-plant equipment. Most steam-generator failures occur in pressurized components, that is, the tubing, piping...