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Pipe bends

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Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 23 Regime maps on the outer surface of Fe pipe bend at pH = 7 and E = −0.6 V (SCE) for total particle mass per second: (a) 0.957, (b) 1.9169, (c) 2.87, (d) 3.8276 kg s −1 . Source: Ref 180 More
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 24 Wastage maps on the outer surface of Fe pipe bend at pH = 7 and E = −0.6 V (SCE) for total particle mass per second: (a) 0.957, (b) 1.9169, (c) 2.87, (d) 3.8276 kg s −1 . Source: Ref 180 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... available to determine the failure load for the degraded component. In piping systems, the relevant loads are external bending moments in addition to the internal pressure. Consequently, the methods for the validation of pressurized components with circumferential defects take into account not only...
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 11 Changing wear pattern at bend in pipe changes angle of impingement. Source: Ref 40 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 10 Automobile exhaust pipe produced in an automatic hydraulic bending press. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... of parts required, the size and wall thickness of the tubing, the work metal, the bend radius, the number of bends in the workpiece, the accuracy required, and the amount of flattening that can be tolerated. Two additional methods for pipe bending are wrinkle bending and roll-extrusion bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005891
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of narrow circumferential band of pipe or tube is also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on stress relieving of pipe ends and welded areas. bars billets channel inductors induction heating oval coils pipes rods solenoid coils stress relieving tube bending Although many...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... operations: bending, flanging, drawing, cutoff, parting, blanking, hemming, curling, staking, notching, coining, piercing, ribbing, lancing, corrugating, beading, seaming, pipe forming, channel forming, embossing, bulging, trimming, perforating, slotting, shearing offsets, seminotching, slitting, louvering...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Modes of propagation for brittle fractures. (a) Fracture resulting from primary tensile loading. (b) Fracture resulting from combined tensile and through-thickness bending load. The center of the chevron is offset from the pipe midwall. (c) Fracture from bending load with schematic More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Changing pattern of wear and, hence, changing angle of impingement, at bend in pipe. Source: Ref 16 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... sections are bent in the field. Cold field bending ( Fig. 7 ) is used to adjust the pipe to match changes in terrain along the pipeline route. Because of transportation issues, it is frequently more convenient to bend pipe sections in the field than at the coating mill. Cold bending can be performed up...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 9 Constant moment loading bending device with capacity of 2 MN · m. Inset shows instrumented pipe after the test More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 4 Programmable rotary draw bender with capacity to bend 50 mm (2 in.). Schedule 40 pipe. Courtesy of Baileigh Industrial Inc. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of tension and bend specimens in plate and pipe test weldments, respectively. Figure 7 shows the configuration of tension and bend specimens. The details of specimen size, orientation, removal, testing, and acceptance are provided in the welding code or standard or by references to ASTM International test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and bend specimens in plate and pipe test weldments, respectively. Figure 6 shows the configuration of tension and bend specimens. The details of specimen size, orientation, removal, testing, and acceptance are provided in the welding codes and standards listed above, in ASTM test standards, or in ANSI...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Fig. 1(c) . Fig. 1 Modes of propagation for brittle fractures. (a) Fracture resulting from primary tensile loading. (b) Fracture resulting from combined tensile and through-thickness bending load. The center of the chevron is offset from the pipe midwall. (c) Fracture from bending load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) Fig. 1318 Fig. 1319 Fig. 1320, 1321 Failure of polyethylene copolymer pipe due to slow crack growth. The 60-mm (2.4-in.) diam, 6-mm (0.25-in.) wall thickness, extruded gas pipe (density 0.937 g/cm 3 ) failed after 211 h in a laboratory test at 80 °C (175 °F) and an internal water pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... use is growing in other evolving applications. Technical Background Guided waves are a type of elastic, or mechanical, waves that are guided by the shape of the test object. In the case of pipelines, they are guided along the wall of the pipe, following the bends and changes in direction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be driven by residual stresses, bending stresses, mechanical damage, soil movement, thermal expansion, or a combination of factors. With larger ruptures, flaps may be created (as a result of the rupture itself) where bending stresses can drive cracks in directions not aligned with the longitudinal pipe axis...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 3 Procedure and designations for failure moment of pipes with circumferential cracks according to the plastic limit load concept, p i , internal pressure; NA, neutral axis Circumferential part-through crack Circumferential through-wall crack Criterion Flow stress Flow More