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Nonmetallic inclusions

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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 13 Nonmetallic inclusions observed in ductile iron castings. (a) Slag particles. Source: Ref 46 (b) Drosses Source: Ref 46 . (c) Undissolved inoculant particles. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 18 Decreasing flank wear by calcium modification of nonmetallic inclusions that formed a protective layer on a TiC-coated insert. Source: Ref 19 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 17 (a) Joint ternary diagram presents nonmetallic inclusion population chemistry in magnesium-treated spheroidal graphite iron. Source: Ref 18 . (b) Cluster of cubic titanium carbonitrides. Reprinted with permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE). Source: Ref 17 . (c More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 11 Comparison of abrasives for preservation of a nonmetallic inclusion in wrought iron. (a) Results of abrading on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. (b) Improved results obtained by abrading on a fine fixed-abrasive lap. As-polished. 500× More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 5 Three types of nonmetallic inclusion: (a) duplex sulfide, (b) spotty oxide, (c) exogenous slag More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., various alloy carbides, graphite, martensite, and a variety of intermetallic phases, nitrides, and nonmetallic inclusions. The article further describes the two-phase constituents including, tempered martensite, pearlite, and bainite and nonmetallic inclusions in steel that consist of two or more phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., boron, zirconium, chromium, vanadium, scandium, nickel, tin, and bismuth. The article discusses the secondary phases in aluminum alloys, namely, nonmetallic inclusions, porosity, primary particles, constituent particles, dispersoids, precipitates, grain and dislocation structure, and crystallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and heat treatment, the single most important factor in achieving high levels of rolling-contact fatigue life in bearings is the cleanliness, or freedom from harmful nonmetallic inclusions, of the steel. Alloy conservation and a more consistent heat-treating response are benefits of using specially...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Aluminum fluxing is a step in obtaining clean molten metal by preventing excessive oxide formation, removing nonmetallic inclusions from the melt, and preventing and/or removing oxide buildup on furnace walls. This article discusses the solid fluxes and gas fluxes used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract The ferrous metals are the most significant class of commercial alloys. This article describes the solidification structures of plain carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, and cast iron, with illustrations. The formation of nonmetallic inclusions in the liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 15 Relation of relative fatigue strength ratio and size of nonmetallic inclusions at fatigue crack initiation site. The relative fatigue strength ratio for reversed bending fatigue limit and the Vickers hardness (HV) are plotted against defect size. Defect size was evaluated by averaging More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 14 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis results for fine nonmetallic inclusions in Nitinol wire material More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 56 Inner-ring raceway of an aircraft-transmission ball bearing that failed by rolling-contact fatigue because of subsurface nonmetallic inclusions. (a) Macrograph of inner-ring raceway showing fine-textured flaking damage (arrow A), coarse-textured flaking damage (arrow B), and origin More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 9 Microstructure of steel file from Alberta fur trade site showing the heterogeneous carbon distribution and nonmetallic inclusions characteristic of a cementation steel. Nital etch. Source: Ref 22 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 7 Monel 400, cold drawn and annealed in a continuous process at 830 °C (1525 °F). Nickel-copper solid solution with a few unidentified nonmetallic inclusions (black). NaCN, (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 . 100× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 28 Same as in Fig. 25 but after etching with Beraha's reagent with selenic acid. IP, iron phosphide; C, cementite; and F, ferrite. The dark points in pearlite, which look like artifacts, can be iron phosphide precipitates or fine, nonmetallic inclusions. 1300× (microscopic magnification More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 32 Same as in Fig. 29 but after etching with Beraha’s reagent with selenic acid. IP, iron phosphide; F, ferrite; and C, cementite. The dark points in pearlite, which look like artifacts, can be iron phosphide precipitates or fine, nonmetallic inclusions. Original magnification: 1300 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... products. The major ingot imperfections are: Chemical segregation Ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage High hydrogen content Nonmetallic inclusions Unmelted electrodes and shelf Cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs Chemical Segregation The elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and properties. It provides information on the inclusions that form as a result of reactions between metallic alloy elements and nonmetallic tramp elements, or by mechanical entrapment of nonmetallic slag or refractory particles. The article reviews the considerations of flux formulation during shielded metal...