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Nitric acid, environment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... metals and alloys when exposed to a nitric acid environment. The ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys discussed are carbon and alloy steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, titanium, zirconium alloys, niobium and tantalum, and nonmetallic materials. carbon steel alloy steel aluminum alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... temperatures. Those nickel-chromium materials with very high chromium contents, such as N06072 (filler metal 72 with 44 wt% Cr), N06035 (G-35 alloy with 33.2 wt% Cr), and N06690 (alloy 690 with 29 wt% Cr), possess outstanding resistance to oxidizing aqueous environments, such as nitric acid and nitric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... at the higher temperatures, niobium and niobium alloys may suffer with hydrogen pickup and possible embrittlement. For this reason, it is extremely important that the temperature of the tube surface, not the bath temperature, be considered as the application temperature. Nitric Acid Environments Niobium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-diamond<460 mils/yr; solid diamond>460 mils/yr Sulfuric Acid and Nitric Acid Mixtures Small additions of nitric acid or nitrates can decrease the corrosion rates of chromium-containing alloys in sulfuric acid ( Fig. 11 ). The effect of nitrate generally depends on the chromium content...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... environments such as nitric acid. Crevice Corrosion Titanium is subject to crevice corrosion in brine solutions containing oxidizers. Although crevice corrosion of titanium is observed most often in hot chloride solutions, it also occurs in iodide, bromide, and sulfate solutions. Susceptibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... steel in a copper sulfate-sulfuric acid (CuSO 4 -H 2 SO 4 ) pickling tank ( Ref 4 ). Another simulated-service test for alloys intended for service in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) plants is described in Ref 5 . In this case, for accelerated results, iron-chromium alloys were tested in a boiling 65% HNO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Hafnium can be sensitive to minor impurities in corrosive environments. The presence of fluoride in low-pH solutions is particularly damaging to hafnium and other reactive metals. The data in Table 4 indicate the effect of fluoride in nitric acid solutions. Fluoride contamination can come from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of strong oxidizing acids such as nitric and nitric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures to remove the oxide scales formed during thermal treatment. This pickling process provides two benefits. First, it removes the oxide scale and passivates the underlying metal surface. Second, due to its aggressive nature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... can be condensed during startup and shutdown periods, and even during normal operation. Sulfuric and nitric acid will react with the insulation forming calcium nitrates. Calcium and ammonium nitrates are both environments where intergranular SCC in carbon steel will be initiated very easily. Calcium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... elements may also be added to improve resistance to specific environments. When chromium levels exceed 20%, high-chromium cast irons exhibit good resistance to oxidizing acids, particularly nitric acid (HNO 3 ). High-chromium irons are not resistant to reducing acids. They are used in saline solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... on temperature in compatible environments. For example, the corrosion rate of zirconium changes little in nitric acid and dilute sulfuric acid as the temperature increases within this limit. With increasing temperature, the corrosion rate of zirconium may increase but so does the film formation rate. The net...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... selection of abrasives and adjustment of pressures. Acid Pickling An alternative method of removing scale from stainless steels and heat-resisting alloys is by immersion in an aqueous solution containing about 10 vol% nitric acid and 1 to 2 vol% hydrofluoric acid. This solution should be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... perform vapor degreasing or alkaline cleaning, and then immerse the parts in a 1:1 solution (by volume) of nitric acid (1.41 sp gr) and water for 15 to 30 min at approximately 35 °C (95 °F). Water rinsing, followed by drying, completes the process. Another procedure that has been successful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and the passivating solution must be reduced. Chemical passivation is required; air passivation does not yield a stable passive layer. Today (2006), two acid combinations are used for passivation: 20% nitric acid at 20 to 50 °C (70 to 120 °F) for 30 to 60 min; and 10% citric acid + 5% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to aggressive acids: 2 NO 2 + H 2 O → 2 HNO 2     ( nitrous     acid ) which then convert to HNO 3 (nitric acid). Pollutants do not act independently, and their interactions can be quite destructive, although all the interactions with each other and with metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... polishing solution for Zr Lactic and nitric acids react autocatalytically. Explosion will occur if stored. 50 parts lactic acid 30 parts HNO 3 2 parts HF Chemical polishing solution for Ta, Nb, and alloys Same as above 3 parts perchloric acid 1 part acetic anhydride Electropolishing solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... . Lead nitrate (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) is quite soluble in dilute and intermediate-strength solutions of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) at room temperature. Lead is not resistant to corrosion under such conditions. However, above an HNO 3 concentration of 50%, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 is only slightly soluble, and lead is quite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... anhydrous methanol, nitrogen tetroxide (N 2 O 4 ), red-fuming nitric acid, liquid or solid cadmium, or liquid mercury. The second class of titanium alloys, including the aerospace titanium alloys, has been found to be susceptible to several additional environments, most notably aqueous halide (e.g...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... preliminary treatments also are helpful in specific instances, particularly for cast aluminum parts. One of these pretreatments entails etching the castings for 20 s in an alkaline solution at 82 °C (180 °F) and then dipping them for 2 to 3 s in a solution consisting of (by volume) 3 parts nitric acid (36...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... were generated over a test period of 24 h and therefore should only be used as a guide. Also, condensing hydrofluoric acid can be more of a problem than the bulk liquid, due to a higher dissolved oxygen content; that can cause surface cracking in stressed nickel alloy components. Nitric Acid...