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Nernst equation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and the Nernst equation. It describes galvanic cell reactions and corrosion reactions in an aqueous solution in an electrochemical cell. The article explores the most common cathodic reactions encountered in metallic corrosion in aqueous systems. The reactions included are proton reduction, water reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract A potential pH diagram is a graphical representation of the relations, derived from the Nernst equation, between the pH and the equilibrium potentials (E) of the most probable electrochemical reactions occurring in a solution containing a specific element. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a general introduction to the kinetics of aqueous corrosion with an emphasis on electrochemical principles. It describes the thermodynamic basis for corrosion by determining the equilibrium potentials of electrochemical reactions from the Nernst equation...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 1 Corrosion potentials experimentally determined in various solutions with respect to pH. The solid line indicates the reversible potential, which is calculated from the Nernst equation, assuming 10 −4 M Zn 2+ in the solution. SCE stands for saturated calomel electrode, the potential More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... When the rate of charge transfer in an electrolysis reaction is large compared to the rate of mass transport and there are no complicating side reactions, the extent of the electrolysis reaction as a function of potential can be expressed by a form of the Nernst equation. Such processes are generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... unit activity (exhibit different concentrations), and therefore, deviate from the standard state. In order to consider these reactions in general, for an aqueous reaction of reactant A to yield product B ( Eq 9 ), the Nernst Equation ( Eq 10 ) can be used to calculate half-cell potentials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The equilibrium potential ( E eq ) of a nonstandard reversible hydrogen electrode versus the SHE is, from the Nernst equation (Eq 25 of the article “Electrode Potentials” in this Section of the volume): (Eq 1) E eq ( H + / H 2 ) = E ( H + / H 2 ) o...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the cell. The potential of an electrochemical cell under equilibrium conditions is defined as the Nernst equation: (Eq 3) U 0 = U ∗ + RT nF ln a O b a R c = U ∗ − RT nF c b ln a R a O where U 0 is the equilibrium potential relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The cathode is where the electron is gained and the electron gainer (or acceptor) can be dissolved oxygen, which is then reduced. It is not clear what factors influence the distribution of anodic and cathodic areas on the surfaces of pipes. The Nernst equation is commonly used to describe redox reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of the metal ion, a , is given by the Nernst equation: (Eq 3) E rev = E o − ( 2.303 R T / n F )   log   a where R is gas constant; F is the Faraday constant, 96,500 C/gram-equivalent; T is the absolute temperature, K; and n is the number of electrons involved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., the crystallographic structure of the alloy or oxide, the temperature, and many other factors. When gas oxidation is analyzed in solids, the diffusivities change many orders of magnitude, D ∈ (10 −18 to 10 −6 , cm 2 / s). Other flux formula were proposed by Nernst- Planck, Onsager, Darken, and others...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... R T ( E − E 0 ) ) } This equation gives the expression (Nernst law) of the equilibrium potential ( E eq ) in the solution considered ( C ox i ≠ C red i ): (Eq 7) E eq = E 0 + R T z F ln ( C ox i C red...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... analysis time depends on the technique used. Determining the voltage of the cell necessary to achieve the required separation requires knowing the reactions that occur at each electrode. The potential of each electrode ( E ) may then be calculated using the Nernst equation: (Eq 1) E = E 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... of the reaction in the direction as written. In practice, the reaction will require approximately 1.191 to 1.222 V using a carbon electrode to proceed to produce aluminum as a product. The Nernst equation relates the potential values of the concentration gradient to the electric gradient that balances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... in equilibrium with its surroundings, the change in entropy is defined as: (Eq 3) d S = Q T = d E + P d V T Third Law A principle advanced by Theodore Richards, Walter Nernst, Max Planck, and others, often called the Third Law of Thermodynamics, states that the entropy of all...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the change in entropy is defined as follows: d S = δ Q T = d E + P d V T Third Law A principle advanced by Theodore Richards, Walter Nernst, Max Planck, and others, often called the Third Law of Thermodynamics, states that “the entropy of all chemically homogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ions or dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte. The oxidation follows the reaction: (Eq 1) Zn → Zn 2 + + 2 e − The chemical potential Nernst equation is: (Eq 2) E 0 = − 0.763       + 0.0295   log [ Zn 2 + ] V SHE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... oxidant, reductant, and ionic concentrations (via the Nernst relationship, ϕ=ϕ o + RT / nF ln [products/reactants]), radiation-induced increases in concentration of various species by many orders of magnitude may have comparatively small effects on the corrosion potential in hot water (note: the Nernst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6