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Leaf springs, Mechanical properties

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Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and formulas are available to aid in the design of springs. electroplating elevated temperatures extension springs fatigue testing hot-wound springs mechanical properties residual stresses steel springs leaf spring STEEL SPRINGS are made in many types, shapes, and sizes, ranging from...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... support the maximum applied stress, at which time overload failure will occur. Fatigue is a likely failure mechanism for all types of springs (compression, extension, torsion, leaf, presswork, spiral, constant force, disc, etc.) as well as for all spring sizes (fatigue occurs in springs made from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... purposes ( Ref 11 ): One thinks of axial springs (a rubber band, for example), leaf springs, helical springs, spiral springs, and torsion bars. The primary function of a spring is that of storing elastic energy and, when required, releasing it again. The objective, then, is to maximize the energy that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... makes the leaf spring more comfortable to wear and provides a better fit in the shoe ( Ref 27 ). Methodology Problem Definition In examining the feasibility of customized 3D-printed AFOs, the research team evaluated biomedical properties and outcomes and compared fit and comfort levels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... alloy that is particularly suited for the fabrication of furnace hardware, missile parts, nozzles, and fasteners. Although tantalum powder can be an intermediate, most tantalum alloys are melted. A Ta-7.5%W alloy, useful for springs, bellows, and leaf springs in severe corrosion environments such as dry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... embrittlement impact fracture inclusions intergranular fracture leaf springs rotating bending fatigue transgranular cleavage Fig. 319 Fracture due to corrosion fatigue of a 115-mm (4.5-in.) diam API 5A, grade E, seamless drill pipe. The fine-grained 0.4C-Mn alloy steel (∼AISI 1340) was used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... range and easy mobility in normal direction by a double-leaf spring system. Fig. 3 Principle of the double-lever spring system of the normal-force-measuring unit of the universal nanomechanical tester UNAT, providing high stiffness and force control for adhesion/indentation measurements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the largest range of available fiber mechanical properties. Constant improvements in fiber modulus, tensile strength, strain to failure, and surface finish have made handling for filament-winding easier. Although the modulus and tensile strength of graphite fibers have been dramatically improved over the past...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... test: Approximates the kind of loading to which shafts and wires are subjected and is the most commonly used Flexural fatigue test: Used to evaluate the behavior of sheet or strip. Most closely simulates the action of leaf springs, which are expected to flex without deforming or breaking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... leaf springs, the leaves are designed with a low section modulus in the direction of loading. The allowable deflection is large and most of the cross section is highly stressed. A common practical definition of full hardening is 90% martensite. For component subjected to bending, depth of hardening...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the selection of stainless steel, namely corrosion resistance, fabrication characteristics, product forms, thermally induced embrittlement, mechanical properties in specific temperature ranges, and product cost. austenitic stainless steel chemical composition corrosion resistance duplex stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... for spring-type electrical contacts. Mechanical Properties Tensile Properties See Fig. 2 and 3 . Fig. 2 Tensile properties and electrical conductivity of silver-copper alloys. (a) Sterling silver (92.5Ag-7.5Cu). (b) Eutectic alloy (72Ag-28Cu). Samples are cold-drawn 2.3 mm (0.091...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... volumes known as the National Fire Codes. These are revised annually, and a set of loose-leaf binders are available under a subscription service that provides replacement pages for obsolete material. Three additional loose-leaf binders are available for recommended practices, manuals, and guides to good...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., transmission shafts may require fewer bearings, and smaller leaf-springs may enable a larger automobile trunk or a lower hood silhouette. Improved Portability Improved portability often can be achieved with proper composite design. Because composite structures are lightweight, many products can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is expressed as a percentage. Several different fatigue tests have been developed, each designed to replicate the loading conditions found in specific industrial applications. The rotating-beam test replicates the loading of a railroad axial; the plate-bending test, a leaf spring; the axial test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a constant load, in addition to the initial elastic deformation, and stress relaxation is the decrease in stress with time after the material has been stressed to a constant deformation. A designer considering the use of a plastic composite leaf spring in the rear suspension of an automobile may inquire how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and flat-leaf springs; they may also occur in ductile fractures of over-torqued fasteners. In fatigue fractures, ratchet marks are the result of multiple fatigue-crack origins, each producing a separate fatigue crack zone. In shafts, the separately initiated cracks normally are propagated on planes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and molded into parts. Many fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) automotive body panels are made by this process. Filament winding and pultrusion are processes that use single-end rovings in continuous form. Applications include pipes, tanks, leaf springs, and many other structural composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04F.a0007010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... of 40Kh steel (0.42% C, 0.60% Mn, 0.28% Si, 0.95% Cr, 0.25% Ni). Source: Ref 1 , 2 Figure 2 shows a general correlation between the mechanical properties of steel parts and the cooling rates for both the conventional quenching process and the IQ process. Material mechanical properties improve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in Fig. 7 . Typical examples include leaf springs and structural beams. Fig. 6 Bar under torsion. M t , applied torque. A , cross sectional area of the bar Fig. 7 Bar under bending by a transverse load. F , applied force; L , length of the bar; M b , bending moment Shear...