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LENS process

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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 20 Schematic of LENS (laser engineered near-net shaping) process illustrating synthesis of laser-assisted coating where coating material is deposited together with the laser beam. Source: Ref 93 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... These materials exhibit a range of hydrophobic to hydrophilic properties and thus are used for specific applications only. For example, soft contact lenses that are in constant contact with human eyes are preferably made of materials that are hydrophilic, such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (polyHEMA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006885
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... is manufactured by EOS. A schematic of these processes is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Schematic of a powder-fed directed-energy deposition setup. CAD, computer-aided design The DED processes require a powder feeder, a build platform with a substrate plate, and a system of lenses and mirrors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 8.07 g/cm 3 Source: Ref 4 Laser-Engineered Net Shape (LENS) Process <xref rid="a0004024-ref5" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 5)</xref> Using this process, a component is fabricated by focusing a laser beam onto a substrate while simultaneously injecting metal powder particles to create a molten...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... the laser beam on the workpiece surface. Short focal length lenses provide small focus spot sizes and high power density. Long focal length lenses provide narrow beam convergence angles, which are necessary to penetrate thick metal sections. Initial beam diameter is an important consideration in lens...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the image recorded, removable storage media, zoom lenses, and macro-focus capability. Such a camera offers all of the standard features found on a professional 35 mm single-lens reflex film camera. It has the same flexibility of interchangeable lenses and off-camera flash. The digital camera has the added...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0009211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Notional thermal profile of a single layer of Ti-6Al-4V during additive manufacturing In general, AM is a relatively rapid solidification process. Researchers ( Ref 7 , 8 , 9 ) reported cooling rates for the laser-engineered net shaping (LENS) process to be between 10 3 and 10 4 K/s. Vilaro et...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... used. These lens elements can be reflective or transmissive. Collimator focal lengths of 60, 75, 100, 120, 150, and 200 mm are common. Focus lenses range from 100, 125, 150, 200, 250, to 300 mm. Even longer focal lengths are used in remote welding ( Ref 6 ). The economic availability of these optics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... usually use lenses in some form. The simplest optical microscope, which has been in use since the early 17th century, is a single convex lens or magnifying glass. The ray diagram for this is shown in Fig. 2 and serves to illustrate the concepts of focal length, f , and magnification, M . The image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the preparation of photomacrographs of fracture surfaces. It provides useful information on the equipment used, such as view cameras, 35-mm single-lens-reflex cameras, and stereomicroscopes. The article describes the role of lenses, focusing, camera magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-field objectives. The point-spread plots (left) illustrate the gain in sharpness with increased correction. Adapted with permission from Leica Microsystems. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 8 Plano-type objective lenses and cross sections through each. The lens shown in (c) is a 14-element oil-immersion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from the lens. When using a ring flash for macrophotography, the higher focal length macro/micro lenses have the disadvantage of having the flash at a higher angle of incidence for side lighting, which diminishes the side lighting effect. If side lighting is critical, a lower focal-length macro/micro...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... between the viewing end and an objective lens at the distant, or distal, tip of the borescope. Three ways to achieve the optical connection are: A rigid tube with a series of relay lenses A tube (normally flexible, but also rigid) with a bundle of optical fibers A tube (normally flexible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., or usable beam. Depth of field is the area of the focused beam that has enough energy density to process materials. This spot-size limitation can be offset by using a larger input beam on a longer focal-length lens, as shown in Fig. 13 Short lenses are typically used on reflective materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... is reserved for very high-power processes, because mirrors are more efficiently and uniformly water cooled than lenses, resulting in smaller temperature gradients across their irradiated area and less heat-induced distortion of their focusing characteristics, also referred to as thermal lensing ( Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of the electromagnetic wave. Red light has a longer wavelength than blue, and IR energy has an even longer wavelength. All IR energy is considered to be composed of elementary packets of energy called photons. The photons travel at the speed of light and can be focused and reflected just like light energy using lenses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Contact Lenses The tribology testing of contact lens materials is usually performed under very low contact pressure conditions so as to simulate the effect of the eyelid during blinking, which is of the order of 3.5 to 4.0 kPa (0.5 to 0.6 psi), with an average speed of approximately 12 cm/s (4.7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... after the emission process can be controlled as long as the fields are created. The fields function as lenses for electrons, essentially equivalent to glass lenses for visible light. The electrical field is created by an electrostatic lens, and the magnetic field is created by an electromagnetic lens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the surface and its vertical movement is controlled by an electric motor. The analog electrical signal generated to drive the motor is digitized and processed in the same manner as a contact stylus. A variation of this method involves the use of a separate transducer to monitor the position of the lens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are superior to those of the ach- and some wavelengths. romatic series of lenses. Because apochromats back re ection. The diffraction of x-rays at a angular aperture. In optical microscopy, the an- are not well corrected for lateral color, special Bragg angle approaching 90 . gle between the most divergent...