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Knoop hardness test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... − HRB ) (60–90 HRB, 110–192 HB) Stable alpha-beta titanium alloys HRC=0.078 HV+8.1 Table 2 Approximate Rockwell B hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Knoop, 500 gf and over Brinell, 3000 kgf, 10 mm ball Tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 68 … 70 97 70 … 83 55 62 … 65 94 67 … 82 50 56 … 59 91 64 … 80 45 50 … 53 87 62 … 79 40 44 … 46 83 59 … 77 Aluminum and aluminum alloys are tested frequently for hardness to distinguish between annealed, cold-worked, and heat treated grades. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ability of a material to resist compressive loads. The indenter may be spherical (Brinell test and some Rockwell methods), pyramidal (Vickers and Knoop tests), or conical (Rockwell C and N scales). In the Brinell, Vickers, and Knoop tests, the hardness value is the load supported by the unit area of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... performed with either the Knoop or the Vickers indenter. The Knoop indenter is more widely used in the United States; the Vickers indenter is more widely used in Europe. Knoop indentation testing is performed with a diamond ground to pyramidal form that produces a diamond-shape indentation having an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... distorts the base metal and is influenced by it, which usually results in low hardness readings. The most reliable and most widely accepted hardness values are those obtained with the Vickers 136 diamond pyramid indenter or the Knoop indenter. With these, the hardness test must be made on a carefully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Additional information about the PB ratio is available in the article “Gaseous Corrosion Mechanisms” in ASM Handbook , Volume 13A, 2003. The corrosion resistance of a 25 μm (1 mil) thick hard chromium electrodeposit, as determined by neutral salt spray test (NSST), should be 10 to 500 h to red rust...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The article describes testing methods such as room and high-temperature strength test methods, proof testing, fracture toughness measurement, and hardness and wear testing. It also explains methods for determining thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and emissivity of ceramics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... shows the resistance of the ceramic to catastrophic failure. A ceramic can be indented with either a Knoop or Vickers shaped diamond indenter and the indentation size measured to give a hardness value. Hardness is related to properties such as wear resistance, which is often measured as the material...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... localized heat treatments, such as carburizing or induction hardening, have been ted on the failed casting. Knoop or Vickers microhardness tests can be conducted, but the choice of which test method to use is dictated by the hardness conversion tables available for evaluation of the test results. The ASTM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Materials Knoop hardness, kg/mm 2 Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Ultimate compressive strength MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi Alloys Alloy crown (Au-Ag-Cu) 125 (HV) 220 32 425 62 … … Amalgam  Admixed … … … 40 5.8 340 49  Unicompositional … … … 50 7.3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... zirconium silicate (AZS) and basalt Ceramic-filled polymers, elastomers, or adhesives Table 1 Property comparison of various ceramic materials and abrasive-resistant steel Product Density Fracture toughness, MPa m Knoop hardness, kg/mm 2 Dry erosion resistance test (a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... average molecular weight of its constituents. (c) Subl. indicates that the substance sublimes at the temperature listed. Source: Corrosion Tests and Standards: Application and Interpretation , ASTM, 1995, p 27 Table 7 Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for nonaustenitic steels...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... produce small, shallow impressions should be used for both of the following procedures, so that the hardness values obtained will be representative of the surface or area being tested. Testers that produce Vickers or Knoop microhardness numbers with loads of at least 0.2 to 1.0 kg are recommended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... hardness) DT dynamic tear (test) DWTT drop-weight tear test e natural log base, 2.71828; electron E energy; modulus of elasticity; embrittlement index; electrochemical potential EDS energy-dispersive spectroscopy Eq equation et al. and others ETP...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.9781627081887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... fracture toughness data can be determined. Hardness is defined as the resistance to penetration by an indenter, and the Knoop and Vickers measurements are the most common. A Knoop hardness number (HK) is obtained by: HK = P / A p = 14.229   P / d 2 where P is the load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9