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Knoop diamond indenters

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract Hardness characterizes the resistance of the ceramic to deformation, densification, displacement, and fracture. It is usually measured with conventional microindentation hardness machines using the Knoop or the Vickers diamond indenters. This article discusses the metrology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... justification to the selection of 136° as the included angle. The Knoop diamond indenter is a variation of the Vickers indenter. It is a pyramid in which the included angles are 172° 30′ and 130°, and the indentation has the shape of a parallelogram with the longer diagonal about seven times as long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... at the former National Bureau of Standards developed an alternate indenter based on a rhombohedral-shaped diamond with the long diagonal approximately seven times as long as the short diagonal ( Fig. 2a ). Figure 2(b) shows examples of Knoop indents to illustrate the influence of applied load on indent size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...° diamond indenter or a Knoop indenter 40 μm (0.16 μin.) 1–4 μm (0.004–0.016 μin.) 1 gf-1 kgf Measure indentation with low-power microscope; read hardness from tables Polished surface Up to 60 Surface layers, thin stock, down to 200 μm Laboratory test used on brittle materials or microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0006001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... equivalent hardness numbers for Brinell hardness numbers for steel Brinell indentation diam, mm Brinell hardness number (a) 3000 kgf load, 10 mm ball (a) Vickers hardness No. Rockwell hardness No. Rockwell superficial hardness No., diamond indenter Knoop hardness No., 500 gf load and greater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... for steel Table 4 Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for Brinell hardness numbers for steel Brinell indentation diam. mm Brinell hardness number (a) 3000 kgf load, 10mm ball (a) Vickers hardness No. Rockwell hardness No. Rockwell superficial hardness No., diamond indenter Knoop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... for Brinell hardness numbers for steel Brinell indentation diam, mm Brinell hardness number (a) 3000 kgf load, 10 mm ball (a) Vickers hardness No. Rockwell hardness No. Rockwell superficial hardness No., diamond indenter Knoop hardness No., 500 gf load and greater Scleroscope hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Knoop hardness No., 500 gf load and greater Scleroscope hardness No. Standard ball Tungsten-carbide ball A scale, 60 kgf load, diamond indentor B scale, 100 kgf load, 1 16 in. diam ball C scale, 150 kgf load, diamond indenter D scale, 100 kgf load, diamond indenter 15 N scale, 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the porosity will result in fewer Knoop diamond indentations falling into hidden pores and thus in fewer wasted or incorrect readings. The open porosity in a mounted sintered part may trap water (moisture). During etching, this water may bleed out, resulting in staining. Water also corrodes some sintered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are direct). Rockwell hardness testing differs from Brinell hardness testing in that the hardness is determined by the depth of indentation made by a constant load impressed upon an indenter. Although a number of different indenters are use for Rockwell hardness testing, the most common type is a diamond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of indentation is operator dependent and results in variation Microindentation hardness testing Vickers hardness Hardness Result does not always correlate to bulk material hardness Values vary with applied loads Requires a polished surface Knoop hardness Hardness Result does not always correlate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...., 0.40 wt% C), these methods can also be used. Two common methods are combustion s and spectrographic analysis. The Knoop indenter shown in Fig. 8 uses a sphero-conical diamond that produces an elongated indentation. This is especially important when measuring thin cases. Typically, specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...   =  Brinell hardness  =   2 P π D 2 ( 1 − 1   −   ( 2 a / D ) 2 ) (Eq 2) H M   =  Meyer hardness  =   P π a 2 Fig. 1 Hardness indenters: (a) Brinell, (b) Vickers, and (c) Knoop Brinell and Meyer hardness values do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as the resistance to penetration by an indenter, and the Knoop and Vickers measurements are the most common. A Knoop hardness number (HK) is obtained by: HK = P / A p = 14.229   P / d 2 where P is the load in kilogram force, A p is the projected area of indentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...—the scratch element is made of one material, not necessarily a hard material such as diamond, while the sample may be made of another material. Indenter Shape The shape of the indenter is usually spherical (or ball), conical with a sharp tip, a four-faced pyramid (Vickers, Knoop), or a triangular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... up to nearest whole number) and brittleness indications, produced by both Knoop and Vickers indenting procedures Table 4 Microhardness values (rounded up to nearest whole number) and brittleness indications, produced by both Knoop and Vickers indenting procedures Sample Vickers True...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... ALL indentation hardness testing is done with Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, and Knoop indenters. These modern methods of indentation testing began with the Brinell test, which was developed around 1900 when the manufacturing of ball bearings prompted J.A. Brinell in Sweden to use them as indenters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The shape of indentations can also allow the nature of an impacting part to be determined. In some cases, there may be deposits of the impacting material, including coating, left on the surface of the impact area. Examples include aluminum present on the surface of a steel component that has been impacted...