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J-integral-based single specimen technique

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... biaxial or plane stress. Then, a more fundamental parameter, the J -integral, is used. Almost all standard plane-strain fracture mechanics test specimens can be adapted to SCC testing. Several examples are shown schematically in Fig. 8 . ASTM Standard E 399 describes the allowable specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... peaks plus a background term, y bi : (Eq 4) y ci = L ∑ j N phases f j ∑ k N peaks S j F k , j 2 ϕ 2 θ i − 2 θ k , j P k , j A j + y bi where L includes the Lorentz polarization and multiplicity factors, f...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a sum of the atomic scattering factors from all the atom positions in the unit cell: Fig. 19 Illustration of relationship between direct and diffracted beams at an ( hkl ) plane of a crystalline structure (Eq 6) F θ = ∑ j f j exp 2 π i hx j + ky j...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques. electronic equipment pulse-echo method single-element transducer-based system surface wave technique transducers transmission method ultrasonic inspection ultrasonic polar scan technique THIS ARTICLE CONSIDERS the two primary methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... beams: (Eq 6) L = λ 4 sin 2 θ The structure factor (F hkl ) that contains information on the chemical makeup of the unit cell is: (Eq 7) F h k l = ∑ j b j e 2 π i ( h x j + k y j + l z j ) The summation is over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... summed over “j,” the energy becomes: (Eq 21) E T = ∑ easy K e H 2 cos 2 ( θ − ϕ e )                         + ∑ j K j H 2 cos 2 ( θ − ϕ j ) The angular dependence of the contributions to the easy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... diagram for a long coil encricling a thin-wall nonferromagnetic tube, showing also an equivalent circuit. R is series resistance; R s is effective shunt resistance, ω is 2π f ; f is frequency; G is shunt conductance; L 0 is coil inductance; Z is impedance; j is − 1 ; ω L 0...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... congruently or incongruently. The heat capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of that material by one degree. The generally tabulated unit is the molar heat capacity (J/mol · K), although listings of heat capacity per unit weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... achieved with full-field techniques, such as optical or thermographic inspection in a layer-wise fashion that can be achieved with limited system integration. Research topics include quantifying thermal data and examination of volumetric techniques such as acoustic emissions for process monitoring and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... reviews the determination of area-amplitude and distance-amplitude curves of a straight-beam pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system. The article discusses the three principal conventional manual ultrasonic sizing techniques: 6 dB drop technique, maximum-amplitude technique, and 20 dB drop technique. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... differential technique, and no stress-free reference standards are required to determine d 0 for the biaxial stress case. The three most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement, the single-angle, two-angle, and sin 2 ψ techniques, assume plane stress at the sample surface and are based on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... defects in sintered PM parts ( Ref 20 , 21 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ). Coupled with machine vision systems they provide great assurance of the integrity of PM components. The application of any nondestructive evaluation technique requires considerable time and effort and extensive knowledge of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the details of SEM-based techniques and specialized SEM instruments. It ends with example applications of various SEM modes. scanning electron microscopy electron beam-sample interaction A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of instrument that magnifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Adhesive-bonded joints are extensively used in aircraft components and assemblies where structural integrity is critical. This article addresses the problem of how to inspect bonded assemblies so that all discrepancies are identified. It describes several inspection techniques and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... process itself. As discussed, the POD performance has direct ramifications for structural integrity, and yet a single technique is highly influenced by a variety of factors including flaw morphology, component geometry, reference sample calibration, test conditions, and human factors. Some influences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... specimen is adiabatic. A more useful form of this equation can be obtained by substituting for the differential stress terms in Eq 1 . The generalized Hooke’s law relationship between stress and strain can be written in matrix notation as: (Eq 2) σ i = ∑ j − 1 6 C i j...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... linear-elastic displacement during slow testing of certain specimen configurations. Advancements in the state of the art, such as R -curve and J -integral tests, extend the use of fracture mechanics to elastic-plastic conditions, which are associated with lower strength materials and smaller section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... image fall into two groups: transform techniques and iterative techniques. The transform techniques are generally based on the theorem of Radon, which states that any 2-D distribution can be reconstructed from the infinite set of its line integrals through the distribution. (A line integral in CT is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... authorities accept an initial inspection time of half the time to a CR and a subsequent reinspection time of half the time for a crack to grow from a NDE to a CR . The previous section described the evolution of engineering approaches to structural integrity that require a single detectable crack...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... bricks A-D/J/K/P/U Structural clay glazed pipe A-D/J/K/P/R/T/U Sanitaryware A/D/E/F/O/M/P/U Bone china (slip cast) A/D-F/J/K/O/P/R/T/Q/T/U Bone china (jiggered) A/D-G/J/K/O/P/R/T/Q/T/U Steatite porcelain A/D-F/J/K/N/M/P/Q/T/U Refractory, fireclay (extruded) A-D/J/K/P/U...