1-20 of 107 Search Results for

J-integral-based multiple specimen technique

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... peaks plus a background term, y bi : (Eq 4) y ci = L ∑ j N phases f j ∑ k N peaks S j F k , j 2 ϕ 2 θ i − 2 θ k , j P k , j A j + y bi where L includes the Lorentz polarization and multiplicity factors, f...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a sum of the atomic scattering factors from all the atom positions in the unit cell: Fig. 19 Illustration of relationship between direct and diffracted beams at an ( hkl ) plane of a crystalline structure (Eq 6) F θ = ∑ j f j exp 2 π i hx j + ky j...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... measurement technique used, and subsequent data analysis. Unless otherwise specified, data analysis is based on the assumption that a near-random grain orientation distribution is sampled in a homogeneous and isotropic material ( Ref 3 ). Although a detailed discussion is beyond the scope of this article, XRD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... summed over “j,” the energy becomes: (Eq 21) E T = ∑ easy K e H 2 cos 2 ( θ − ϕ e )                         + ∑ j K j H 2 cos 2 ( θ − ϕ j ) The angular dependence of the contributions to the easy...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract In high-iron-tonnage operations, the cupola remains the most efficient source of continuous high volumes of iron needed to satisfy high production foundries or the multiple casting machines of centrifugal pipe producers. This article explores successful improvement technologies in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surfaces. These techniques provide data about the physical topography, physical properties, chemical composition, and chemical structure of the surfaces under study. Most of these techniques are based on bombarding the surface with species such as photons, x-rays, ions, neutrons, or electrons and analyzing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... multiple layers in powder bed based AM. These defects are generally avoided by using high-quality, well-characterized feedstocks and energy densities achieved by establishing processing windows for a particular machine and material combination that produces the desired performance results. Most AM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... reviews the determination of area-amplitude and distance-amplitude curves of a straight-beam pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system. The article discusses the three principal conventional manual ultrasonic sizing techniques: 6 dB drop technique, maximum-amplitude technique, and 20 dB drop technique. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... differential technique, and no stress-free reference standards are required to determine d 0 for the biaxial stress case. The three most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement, the single-angle, two-angle, and sin 2 ψ techniques, assume plane stress at the sample surface and are based on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectroscopy, illustrating how this technique is destructive to the surface. Courtesy of J. Sampson, NASA Another destructive method is ICP-OES, which provides beneficial information on trace elements in an alloy. ICP-OES requires care in preparation of standards, blanks, and specimens for analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... defects in sintered PM parts ( Ref 20 , 21 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ). Coupled with machine vision systems they provide great assurance of the integrity of PM components. The application of any nondestructive evaluation technique requires considerable time and effort and extensive knowledge of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the details of SEM-based techniques and specialized SEM instruments. It ends with example applications of various SEM modes. scanning electron microscopy electron beam-sample interaction A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of instrument that magnifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Unidirectional tension Ultimate tensile strength Yield strength Proportional limit (curve) Ductility: percent reduction in area and percent elongation May be insufficient material for standard test specimen Anisotropic materials require multiple samples Properties can be specimen-size dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Adhesive-bonded joints are extensively used in aircraft components and assemblies where structural integrity is critical. This article addresses the problem of how to inspect bonded assemblies so that all discrepancies are identified. It describes several inspection techniques and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... serviceability in order to detect, locate, measure and evaluate flaws; to assess integrity, properties and composition; and measure geometric characteristics.” This approach is in stark philosophical contrast to testing (perhaps destructively) a production-sibling component or material specimen and inferring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... structure to be inspected nonintrusively in a single loading operation Aircraft, bridges, welds, metal forming, composite and metal pressure vessels, piping Replica two-part silicon compound (now more widely used than acetate tape techniques) Two-part liquid silicon-base compound is applied to surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques. electronic equipment pulse-echo method single-element transducer-based system surface wave technique transducers transmission method ultrasonic inspection ultrasonic polar scan technique THIS ARTICLE CONSIDERS the two primary methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... constants C and q ; the cyclic J -integral, Δ J ; an activation energy, Q p ; and the temperature, T . Thermomechanical fatigue conditions are defined as having varying temperature. In that case, the temperature in each equation discussed earlier is often replaced with an effective temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... image fall into two groups: transform techniques and iterative techniques. The transform techniques are generally based on the theorem of Radon, which states that any 2-D distribution can be reconstructed from the infinite set of its line integrals through the distribution. (A line integral in CT is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., commonly referred to as the POD curve. This curve is commonly plotted as detection capability in terms of percentage of detection as a function of defect size. This curve can be used as one of multiple inputs to calculate risk of failure or other related safety factors when NDE-based inspections are used...