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Invar

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., composition, and applications of iron-nickel low-expansion alloys (Invar), as well as other special alloys, including iron-nickel-chromium alloys, iron-nickel-cobalt alloys, iron-cobalt-chromium alloys, and high-strength, controlled-expansion alloys. It covers the factors affecting coefficient of thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of iron combined with nickel-chromium, nickel-cobalt, or cobalt-chromium alloying. Many of the low-expansion alloys are identified by trade names: Invar, which is a 64%Fe-36%Ni alloy with the lowest thermal expansion coefficient of iron-nickel alloys Kovar, which is a 54%Fe-29%Ni-17%Co alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of selected tooling materials Table 2 Coefficients of thermal expansion of selected tooling materials Material Coefficient of thermal expansion, 10 –6 /K Electroformed nickel 13.1 Steel 12–13 Invar-36 2.7 Aluminum 23.4 Fiberglass/epoxy (50–60 vol% fiberglass) 9–12.6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...–927 70–1701 Special Metals Corp. Invar 36, Fe-Ni 1.6 25–93 75–199 Carpenter Technology Corporation Invar 32-5, Fe-Ni-Co 0.72 25–93 75–199 Carpenter Technology Corporation Iron 12 25 75 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics , 59th ed. Kovar, Fe-Ni-Co 5.86 25–100 75–210...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Clad metals can be designed with a unique coefficient of linear expansion by cladding two or more alloys in a symmetrical configuration. Specific examples are copper-clad Invar (iron-nickel alloy) wire for glass-to-metal seals and copper-clad Invar (Cu/Invar/Cu) strip that matches the coefficient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 184 7.0 282 41 10.0 Beryllium Aluminum 210 13.9 179 26 2.1 E-glass fibers Epoxy 0.16–0.26 11–16 16–19 2–3 2.1 Invar Silver 153 6.5 110 16 8.8 Continuous carbon fibers Epoxy 300 −1.1 186 27 1.8 Copper 400 6.5 158 23 7.2 Aluminum 290 6.5 131 19...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with some ferritic areas of carburized (0.95% C potential) 8620 alloy steel revealed using 10% sodium metabisulfite etchant and viewed using bright field (a) and polarized light plus sensitive tint (b). The lath martensite is seen more clearly in polarized light. Fig. 26 Interface between Invar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... 0.40% C 20 to 100 11.3 0.56% C 20 to 100 11.0 1.08% C 20 to 100 10.8 1.45% C 20 to 100 10.1 Invar (36% Ni) 20 0.2 13Mn-1.2C 20 18.0 13Cr-0.35C 20 to 100 10.0 12.3Cr-0.4Ni-0.09C 20 to 100 9.8 17.7Cr-9.6Ni-0.06C 20 to 100 16.5 18W-4Cr-1V 0 to 100 11.2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 0.89 72.1 41.7 13.3 7.4 Invar 36 8.11 502.3 0.12 4060.4 0.97 10.47 6.1 1.4 0.8 Invar 42 8.13 502.3 0.12 4102.3 0.98 15.3 8.8 5.2 2.9 Plaster Gypsum-base 1.4–1.6 3516–4186 0.84–1.0 4939–6698 1.18–1.6 1.44 0.8 14.9 8.3 Composites Fiberglass/epoxy 1.8...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... not change appreciably with temperature. Cobalt-containing low expansion alloys include Fe-Ni-Co alloys containing 5 wt% Co (Super-Invar) or 17 wt% Co (Kovar), iron-cobalt-chromium alloys containing 53 to 54.5 wt% Co (Stainless Invar), and high-strength Fe-Ni-Co alloys containing 13 to 16 wt% Co (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... low thermal expansion characteristics. Nickel was found to have a profound effect on the thermal expansion of iron. Alloys can be designed to have a very low thermal expansion or display uniform and predictable expansion over certain temperature ranges. Iron-36% Ni alloy (Invar) has the lowest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Incoloy 901 8.23 0.297 T1 tool steel 8.67 0.313 M2 tool steel 8.16 0.295 H41 tool steel 7.88 0.285 20W-4Cr-2V-12Co steel 8.89 0.321 Invar (36% Ni) 8.00 0.289 Hipernik (50% Ni) 8.25 0.298 4% Si 7.6 0.27 10.27% Si 6.97 0.252 Stainless steels and heat-resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 20Cb3 N08020 8.08 0.292 20W-4Cr-2V-12Co steel … 8.89 0.321 Invar (36% Ni) K93601 8.00 0.289 Hipernik (50% Ni) … 8.25 0.298 4% Si … 7.6 0.27 10.27% Si … 6.97 0.252 Stainless steels and heat-resistant alloys Corrosion-resistant steel castings CA-15 J91150...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... measurement equipment Fabrication planning for compliance of each operation and completeness in the tool build process Metallic tooling made from Invar (a low- expansion iron-nickel alloy), steel, aluminum, and electroplated materials are becoming more popular for production composite cure tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-dispensing head itself, special materials are used to help maintain tape temperature once the tape is heated. These same considerations must also be applied to the mold surface. Materials that act as a heat sink must be avoided for BMI tape lay- up. Other typical lay-up surfaces include Invar (iron-nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the miniaturization of electronics products while allowing new features to be added ( Fig. 2 ). Controlled-expansion alloys (e.g., Invar, F-15) for hermetic packages and soft magnetic alloys for use in electromechanical applications are readily processed by MIM. Fig. 2 Metal injection molding 17-4 PH stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 11.5 6.4 Ceramic 12.1–12.6 6.7–7.0 Glass prepreg 11.7–13.1 6.5–7.3 Graphite prepreg 3.6 2.0 Invar 1.4–5.2 0.8–2.9 Monolithic graphite 0.2–1.8 0.1–1.0 Fig. 2 Flattened contours. (a) Sphere. (b) Truncated cone Fig. 4 Post-winding forming Fig. 5...