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Intergranular precipitation

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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 14 Precipitation of carbide M 23 C 6 and area of intergranular corrosion attack of stainless steel grade AISI 304 (0.042C-0.59Si-1.23Mn-17.46Cr-10.58Ni-0.046N). Source: Ref 19 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... This is because grain boundaries are sites for precipitation and segregation, which make them chemically and physically different from the grains themselves. Intergranular attack is defined as the selective dissolution of grain boundaries or closely adjacent regions without appreciable attack of the grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... approximately 425 °C (800 °F), the carbides do not precipitate, and the steels are immune to intergranular corrosion. Reheating the alloys to 425 to 815 °C (800 to 1500 °F), as for stress relief, causes carbide precipitation and sensitivity to intergranular corrosion. The maximum rate of carbide precipitation...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 58 Intergranular corrosion. (a) Sample from a cast stainless steel neck fitting. (b) Region adjacent to the intergranular corrosion revealing extensive σ-phase precipitation at grain boundaries; electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH. (c) Same area as (b) after repolishing and etching More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 34 Intergranular corrosion. (a) Sample from a cast stainless steel neck fitting. (b) Region adjacent to the intergranular corrosion revealing extensive σ-phase precipitation at grain boundaries; electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH. (c) Same area as (b) after repolishing and etching More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking steam generator tubes INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is decohesion that occurs along a grain boundary. Intergranular fracture is often associated with the presence of an embrittlement mechanism or the presence of precipitates and segregates at the grain boundary, which make the grain boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Metallurgical evaluation of HAZ liquation reveals three stages of microstructural and compositional evolution ( Fig. 7 ). An initial stage develops where the liquating precipitate is in contact with the liquid. In a later stage of evolution, the precipitate is completely liquated, but the intergranular liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that cause IG fracture of steels. Mechanisms of IG fracture in alloy steels are also described in Ref 17 . Intergranular Fracture of Steels due to Grain-Boundary Precipitates This type of IG fracture is caused by the presence of well-defined second-phase precipitates at the grain boundaries. It may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of aircraft main landing gears, and aircraft engine mount beams. aircraft main landing gear fatigue fracture fractograph high-pressure compressors intergranular fracture intergranular stress-corrosion cracking precipitation-hardening stainless steel tension-overload fracture Fig. 720...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... to intergranular corrosion, are dissolved. For an in-depth discussion on the effects of metallurgical variables such as carbide precipitation on the corrosion resistance of stainless, see the article “Effects of Metallurgical Variables on the Corrosion of Stainless Steels” in ASM Handbook Volume 13A ( Ref 1...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 26 Microstructure of as-rolled Fe-1.31%C-0.35%Mn-0.25%Si high-carbon water-hardenable tool steel. (a) Etching with picral revealed the Widmanstätten intragranular cementite that precipitated as proeutectoid cementite before the eutectoid reaction, but the intergranular cementite More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
. MC carbides are precipitated at grain boundaries; the solid-solution matrix contains γ′ particles. Kalling's reagent 2. Original magnification 1000×. (c) Replica electron micrograph showing intergranular γ′ precipitated at 1080 °C (1975 °F) as well as fine γ′ precipitated at 845 °C (1550 °F) and 760 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 1 Crack propagation mechanisms: (a) Cleavage crack propagation. (b) Dimple fracture due to coarse particles. (c) Dimple fracture due to fine particles. (d) Dimple fracture due to coarse and fine particles. (e) Intergranular crack propagation due to grain boundary precipitates. (f More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 1 Crack propagation mechanisms: (a) cleavage crack propagation. (b) Dimple fracture due to coarse particles. (c) Dimple fracture due to fine particles. (d) Dimple fracture due to coarse and fine particles. (e) Intergranular crack propagation due to grain boundary precipitates. (f More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... or quasicleavage, and intergranular failure. Certain fundamental characteristics of fracture observed in precipitation-hardening alloys, ferrous alloys, titanium alloys are also discussed. cleavage fracture crack growth cracking creep dimpled rupture ductile striation formation failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... intergranular corrosion martensitic stainless steel oxidation pitting corrosion precipitation-hardening stainless steel stress-corrosion cracking general corrosion wrought stainless steels crystallographic structure STAINLESS STEELS are iron-base alloys containing at least 10.5% Cr. With increasing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... are effects from precipitation of secondary phases, usually as a result of a controlled thermal process such as age hardening. This includes both intergranular and intragranular precipitation, as well as effects from solute remaining in solid solution. Also see the article “Corrosion Resistance...
Image
Published: 01 June 2016
, with the gamma prime particles in the gamma solid-solution matrix. Etchant: Kalling’s reagent 2. Original magnification: 1000×. (b) Replica electron micrograph. Intergranular gamma prime precipitated at 1080 °C (1975 °F); fine gamma prime at 845 °C (1550 °F) and 760 °C (1400 °F). Carbide particles are also More
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 20 SEM image of pitting corrosion and intergranular fracture on a pair of 17-4 precipitation-hardening H 900 surgical scissors that fractured due to corrosion-induced hydrogen embrittlement More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Multiple intergranular cracks • Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing...