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Interference microscopy

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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 8 Dependence of grain-boundary energy on misorientation for (a) <001> tilt and (b) <001> twist grain boundaries in copper at 1065 °C. The dihedral angles at thermal grooves were measured by interference microscopy; the absolute values for the boundary energy were determined More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... include bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The article also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscope, to obtain additional information, are also described. The article concludes with information on photomicroscopy and macrophotography. bright-field illumination dark-field illumination depth of field interference-contrast illumination light microscopy macrophotography mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 10 Microstructure of a stainless steel observed using different techniques of optical microscopy: (a) bright field, (b) dark field, and (c) differential interference contrast (DIC). Grain boundaries detected using simple binarization are marked on the right side as black (a and c) or white More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and the morphology of large second-phase particles. Specialized optical metallographic techniques, such as polarized light microscopy and interference microscopy, can add significantly to the information obtained in a microscopic investigation, and interference microscopy can be used to identify height differences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are revealed by polarized light microscopy ( Fig. 6 ) or by differential interference contrast illumination (DIC) ( Fig. 7 ). Other examples of grain structure, twins, and inclusions revealed by DIC illumination are shown in Fig. 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 and 58 . Figure 58 also shows an example of chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... reflected light microscopes. These optical techniques include dark-field illumination, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, and differential interference contrast, all of which use the Köhler illumination principle known from the most common bright-field illumination mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...: Bright field Polarized light Phase contrast Differential interference contrast (DIC), also known as Nomarski Modulation contrast, also known as Hoffman modulation contrast Epi-illumination Optical staining The various methods of transmitted optical microscopy are used to enhance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... channeling pattern technique in an SEM. The surface topography of friction tracks also can be visualized at the nanometer scale with Nomarski optical interference microscopy. The methods vary in the information they provide in both lateral extent and depth into the surface. In addition, analysis of wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., interference contrast, or dark-field illuminations. Fig. 1 Light microscopy image showing the surface texture of stainless steel tubing for needles. Incoming inspection suspected surface contamination on the tubes, but microscopic examination indicated the surface appearance was due to texture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and whether it is important to understand the minimum/maximum sizes, the average, or the distribution. Testing is performed on as-received or de-agglomerated powder, and some methods allow for both wet and dry analysis. Optical imaging and scanning electron microscopy are used to evaluate powder and granule...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... optical emission spectroscopy, high-temperature combustion, and inert gas fusion. This is followed by a section on techniques for determining the atomic structure of crystals, namely X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and electron diffraction. Types of electron microscopies most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... microscopy is applied to high-resolution, high-frequency ultrasonic inspection techniques that produce images of features beneath the surface of a sample. Because ultrasonic energy requires continuity of materials to propagate, internal defects such as voids, inclusions, delaminations, and cracks interfere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... optical microscopy include differential interference microscopy, SEM, TEM, photoemission electron microscopy ( Ref 20 , 21 , 22 ), and scanning Auger microscopy ( Ref 23 ). Of these, SEM and photoemission electron microscopy are the most useful techniques, especially when used in conjunction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and double-pass impregnation. The article illustrates reflected-light optical microscopy techniques to evaluate the morphology of thermoplastic materials for determining the material quality and correlating key microstructural features with material performance. dispersed-phase toughening double-pass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... measurement at the nanoscale, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement and scanning electron microscopy measurement. It reviews the techniques of wear measurement at the atomic level, namely, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and AFM combined with TEM measurement. atomic force...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... analysis Magnetic susceptibility Thermo-optical analysis Microscopy Source: Ref 33 Factors influencing thermal analysis Table 4 Factors influencing thermal analysis Test method Measured variable Factors influencing measurement (a) Dilatometry Size or volume Interference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., optical emission spectroscopy; OM, optical metallography; RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; RS, Raman spectroscopy; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SIMS, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, SSMS, spark source mass spectrometry; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., the level of mass interferences derived from liquid sample introduction (e.g., ArO + and ArH + ) is significantly reduced. In addition, spatial distribution of elements in a heterogeneous solid can be studied. Such analysis is critical in the electronics and other high-technology industries. Inductively...