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Hydrogen cyanide

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and delayed coking units typically require corrosion- inhibition applications. In these units, considerable amounts of hydrocarbon and inorganic gases are produced. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, and other gases formed in the cracking process are removed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... them internally or allowing them to be absorbed through skin abrasions. Contact between the compounds and mineral acids also generates another hazard: the formation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas, an extremely toxic product. Exposure to hydrogen cyanide can be fatal. Neutralization of Cyanide Waste...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cast iron chemical analysis chromate conversion coating corrosion current density cyanide baths deposition rate drying electrodeposition hydrogen embrittlement plate thickness rinsing steel stripping toxicity Electrodeposits of cadmium are used to protect steel and cast iron against...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... during the plating operation, thorough cleaning of parts to be plated in these baths is still necessary. The high-efficiency sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide electrolytes have virtually no surface-cleaning ability during plating because of the absence of hydrogen evolution. Parts to be plated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) is indicative of sulfur. Test for halogens: Acidify a 2 mL aliquot of the fusion solution by dropwise addition of 6 M nitric acid (verify acidification with blue litmus paper). Boil the solution gently for 2 to 3 min to expel any hydrogen sulfide or cyanide that may be present, because these may interfere...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... substantial energy savings. Current efficiencies are 95 to 98%, normally much higher than in cyanide or alkaline processes, especially at higher current densities, as shown in Fig. 5 . Minimal hydrogen embrittlement is produced than in other zinc baths because of the high current efficiency. Waste...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., potassium stannate, or a slurry of stannate oxide to replace the tin being plated. The presence of stannite is indicated by a dark color in the solution. The stannite is oxidized to stannate by the use of hydrogen peroxide, which must be added slowly and with constant stirring to prevent reaction...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (Endogas) is a blend of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen (with smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane) produced by reacting a hydrocarbon gas, such as natural gas (primarily methane), propane, or butane with air. Endogas is usually produced in a separately fired retort furnace...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., can be removed by immersion in a mixture of 9 parts glacial acetic acid and 1 part 30% hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. Indium and silver-indium alloy can be removed from steel by reversing the current in 30 g/L (4 oz/gal) solution of sodium cyanide at approximately 50 to 55 °C (122 to 131 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and nonferrous alloys used in petroleum refining and petrochemical applications. The article reviews the mechanical properties, fabricability, and corrosion resistance of refinery steels. It describes low- and high-temperature corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and cracking such as stress-corrosion, sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... on the contact surface upon exposure to organic compounds in the environment. This effect can be minimized by application of flash plating a layer of fine gold on top of the palladium surface. The biggest challenge when electrodepositing palladium is avoiding hydrogen embrittlement. Palladium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... equipment is subject to high-temperature oxidation, carburization and decarburization, and sulfidation, in addition to high-hydrogen and nitrogen-bearing atmospheres. Corrosion by molten salts and molten metals is also a problem for heat treating furnaces and accessories. Equipment for plating, pickling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the rate of diffusion and thus the current density, which decreases deposition time. Hydrogen overpotential is also decreased; this may affect the degree of separation, particularly when metal complexes are involved. Rate of Flow of Ions The rate of flow of ions to an electrode is hastened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Silver +700 Stainless steel +400 to 700 Gold +950 (a) Cathode and anode polarization, however, can cause a reversal of these relationships. Source: Ref 1 Solution potentials of some aluminum alloys and other metals in normal sodium chloride containing 0.3% hydrogen peroxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and hydrogen cyanide (with oxygen present). Mixtures of HCl, HBr, and HI with HNO 3 are extremely corrosive to gold. Mixtures of HF and HNO 3 are not corrosive to gold. Gold is resistant to most other acids. The anodic dissolution and corrosion of gold is reviewed in Ref 18 . Corrosion of gold in acids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... material may need a bright dip or color dip after pickling. Pickling conditions for copper-base materials Table 1 Pickling conditions for copper-base materials Constituent or condition Amount or value Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid (a) 15–20 vol% 35% hydrogen peroxide 3–5 vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of 0.2 A/dm 2 (2 A/ft 2 ) for at least 8 h. The solution should then be analyzed and brought up to specification with stannous or lead fluoborate. Iron, nickel, and other metals above hydrogen in the electromotive series are not removed by dummying, although copper is easily removed. Filtration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... μm/yr (0.03 mil/yr) were measured, along with extreme hydrogen embrittlement. Tantalum has been used as anode baskets in a number of silver cyanide barrel platers for several years of service life, and although the solutions are quite alkaline with free KOH, the tantalum has remained bright...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the absorption of nascent (atomic) hydrogen into the metal. These substances are called cathodic poisons, and they include phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and cyanide ion. Among the cathodic poisons, sulfides are among the most common. Environments containing hydrogen sulfide can...