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Hertzian contact theory

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... component life. A brief discussion on coatings to improve surface-initiated fatigue and wear is included, due to the similarity to RCF and the increasing criticality of this failure mode. The article presents a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory, describes the life prediction of rolling-element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of hardness theory—those having high values of stiffness to flow stress ( E / Y ), and those having low values of E / Y . When loaded by a blunt indenter, the materials having high values of E / Y (metals) appear to develop a Hertzian stress distribution over the contact. Materials having low values of E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to determine the lubricant film thickness (Hertzian theory is for dry contacts), friction, and power loss. Figure 18 shows a typical automotive polynomial cam. It comprises a base circle with a slight clearance, so that the valve remains closed between the valve closing and its opening point, marked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... thermoelectric effect from dissimilar materials and with the use of a very small contact area that is typical for Hertzian contact of a spherical slider against a flat surface. Because of the thin junction, thermocouples can also to a certain extent measure rapid temperature changes and flash temperature rise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... these stresses above the classical Hertzian theory. Thus, the depth at which subsurface fatigue originates remains unaffected by surface finish ( Ref 27 ). However, traction forces are not considered in classical Hertzian theory and will decrease the depth at which the maximum contact shear stresses occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the Hertz theory of elastic contact. Traditionally, Hertzian cone cracks have been most widely studied in flat, silicate glass plate, using spheres of hard steel or tungsten carbide. Extension to ceramics is becoming more prevalent, and the theory of Hertzian fracture has been significantly developed during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-initiating microstructural features would be absent from the near-surface regions where Hertzian contact stresses are maximum. High-performance aerospace and military applications will continue to drive the development of high-temperature ceramic materials for rolling-element bearings, and commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in the mild wear regime. (b) Appearance of the same type of scar in the severe wear regime Fig. 16 Principles of the general systems theory Fig. 4 Basic contact conditions for (a) conformal and (b) counterformal contact, with Hertzian contact pressure under normal forces ( F N...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Table 6 Effect of surface finishing method on mixed EHL characteristics Surface finishing method Composite surface roughness (σ) Specific film thickness (λ) Contact load ratio ( W c ), % Coefficient of friction, µ von Mises stress (σ v ), GPa, max Relative Hertzian life, % Shaved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a rolling-element roller bearing) or nonconforming (e.g., contact between the inner race and roller in a rolling-element roller bearing). The alternating stress field responsible for RCF failure can generally be idealized from Hertzian contact conditions in conventional metallic and ceramic materials (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... I.L. , Bolster R.N. , Wegand J. , Fayeulle S. , and Stupp B.C. , Hertzian Contact Contribution to Low Friction Behavior of Thin MoS 2 Coatings , Appl. Phys. Lett. , Vol 57 , 1990 , p 995 – 997 10.1063/1.104276 31. Wahl K.J. , Seitzman L.E. , Bolster...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ignoring the difference between the displacement and the sliding amplitude can lead to a false deduction of the variation of the specific wear rate Fig. 11 Illustration of the pressure ( p ) and the shear ( q ) profiles along the median axis of the sliding direction for a Hertzian sphere-on-flat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of material that results from repeated impact of solid particles energized in a carrier fluid. This article reviews important SPE variables, their effects for different classes of materials, composites and coatings, and the mechanisms and theories proposed to explain SPE. It discusses the SPE of metals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propagation in different environments. The article concludes with a discussion on rolling-contact fatigue, macropitting, micropitting, and subcase fatigue. corrosion fatigue crack growth crack initiation damage tolerance criterion fatigue fracture fatigue strength fatigue-crack propagation finite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... with increasing impacter mass, particularly for the largest plate. Also, impact force is generally smaller for the larger plate and is less for simply supported than clamped boundary conditions. Several effects of indenter radius are not obvious in Fig. 16 . For Hertzian contact ( Ref 11 ), the contact force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-Williamson (GW) model ( Ref 8 , 9 ) provides an accurate description of the contact mechanics involved. It assumes a Gaussian distribution of asperity summit heights and employs Hertzian contact theory for all contacting asperities individually. To find the adhesive force, for every contacting asperity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... by semiminor and semimajor axes. The Hertzian pressure profile ( Ref 21 , 22 ) associated with curved surfaces can be parabolic (line contact) or ellipsoidal (elliptical contacts). Figure 3 shows a parabolic contact stress profile, where the maximum pressure is labeled P . It should be noted that even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.9781627081924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... elements in a bearing under an external radial force Fig. 22 Normal (Hertzian) contact stress distribution obtained over an elliptical rolling-element/raceway contact area in a bearing. σ max is the maximum normal contact stress at the center of contact, and σ is the contact stress anywhere...