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Helical springs

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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 6 Modified Goodman diagrams for steel helical springs made from music wire (a and b) and 302 stainless steel wire (c and d). The graphs on the left (a and c) plot maximum allowable stresses for 10 million cycles for a similar group of wire diameters. All stresses were corrected More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 7 Modified Goodman diagrams for steel helical springs made from chromium-silicon steel (a and b), oil-tempered wire (c and d), and hard-drawn spring wire (e and f). The graphs on the left (a, c, and e) plot maximum allowable stress for 10 million cycles for 3.18 mm (0.125 in.) diam wires More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 10 Relaxation curves for steel helical springs of music wire (ASTM A 228), chromium-silicon spring wire (ASTM A 401), oil-tempered spring wire (ASTM A 229), chromium-vanadium spring wire (ASTM A 231), and hard-drawn spring wire (ASTM A 227) at (a) 90 °C (200 °F) and (b) 150 °C (300 °F More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 11 Relaxation curves for steel helical springs made of (a) 302 stainless steel and (b) 631 stainless steel. The curves represent relaxation after exposure for 72 h at the indicated temperatures. More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 18 Hardness distribution for steels for hot-wound helical springs. Alloy steels were oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F); 1095 was oil quenched from 885 °C (1625 °F). Data were obtained from hot-rolled, heat-treated laboratory test coupons, 305 mm (12 in.) long. Specimens were sectioned More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 4 Typical scatter band in fatigue tests of music wire helical springs, stress range zero to maximum. Wire size 0.022–0.048 in. Source: Ref 9 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 12 Effect of time and temperature on the relaxation of ten-turn helical springs made from (a) music wire per ASTM A 228 and (b) 420 and 431 stainless steel wire. Wire diameter, 2.69 mm (0.106 in.); spring diameter, 25.4 mm (1.00 in.); free length, 76.2 mm (3.00 in.). Stresses were More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Helical spring that failed by fatigue. Weld spatter (arrows) was believed to have caused the failure (see text). Arrow FO indicates fracture origin. 29× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Linear helical spring parameters More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 16 Linear helical spring parameters More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 9 A fracture surface (left) on a helical spring More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 10 A fatigue crack on a second helical spring at a similar location as shown in Fig. 9 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 21 Wahl correction factors for helical compression or extension springs. Spring index, C , is the mean diameter of the spring, D , divided by the diameter of the wire, d . When square wire, or rectangular wire coiled on the flat side, is used, the thickness of the wire, t More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 20 Examples of fatigue crack initiation below the surface. (a) Crack initiation (CI) at the interface of a case-hardened shaft and (b) at an embedded oxide in a helical spring. CP, crack propagation; FF, final fracture More
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the minimum tensile strength. (b) For helical compression or extension springs; design stress of torsion and flat springs taken as 75% of minimum tensile strength. (c) Correlation between hardness and tensile properties of wire is approximate only and should not be used for acceptance or rejection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that are higher than expected. Note that the stresses a given spring can withstand are greatly affected by the operating environment. For example, helical springs made of 6150 steel provided failure-free service in fuel-injection pumps when the fuel oil being pumped was a normal low-sulfur grade. However, several...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 16 Helical instrument spring that required a constant modulus of rigidity up to 90 °C (200 °F) More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 24 Photograph of helical compressor spring failure that occurred three active turns from the bottom. The failure origin was on the inside diameter of the spring More