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Gibbs free energy

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 3 Richardson-Jeffes diagram showing standard Gibbs free energy of formation as a function of temperature for metal oxide systems. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 Gibbs free-energy composition diagram (a) and locus of solvus curves (b) of metastable and stable equilibrium phases in a precipitation sequence. (a) The points of common tangency show the relationship between compositions of the matrix phase (C″, C′, and C eq ) and the various forms More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Law of Thermodynamics, and the Third Law of Thermodynamics. It informs that for transformations that occur at a constant temperature and pressure, the relative stability of the system is determined by its Gibbs free energy. The article describes the Gibbs free energy of a single-component unary system...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces the fundamental concepts of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics in describing presolidification phenomena. For metallurgical systems, the most important thermodynamic variables are enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. A qualitative demonstration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...) framework, the Gibbs free energies and atomic mobilities are established as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition and serve directly as key inputs of any microstructure modeling. The article presents examples of the integrated computation tool set in simulating microstructural evolution...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 Limit of massive growth of ferrite in the iron-nickel system according to experimental data (triangles and dashed line), compared with calculated phase boundaries and the T 0 line, which is the locus of points where the Gibbs free energy of α equals γ. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... quantitative data concerning known equilibria that later can be used to predict other equilibria. The driving force for chemical reactions at constant pressure is the Gibbs free energy change, which has been expressed in thermodynamic treatments as the balance between the effects of energy (enthalpy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of gas mixtures and partial pressures of volatile oxidation products. oxygen gaseous corrosion crystal structure molar volume thermal properties pure metals oxides free energy oxidation process pure divalent metal Richardson-Jeffes diagram Gibbs energy stability range METALS can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... ( E ) of the most probable electrochemical reactions occurring in a solution containing a specific element. The standard equilibrium potentials are computed from thermodynamic data (standard chemical potentials, or Gibbs free energies of formation). The equilibrium relations drawn for a given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.9781627081832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... 1) E = F + T S where E is the internal energy, F is the Helmholtz free energy, T is the absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin (K), and S is entropy, a measure of the thermal energy unavailable for useful work. The Gibbs energy is defined as: (Eq 2) G = H − T S...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are determined from experimental data on the ternary system i-j-s . Values of γ o and ε for aluminum-base and copper-base alloys are given in Table 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 . Standard Gibbs free energies for solution of elements in liquid aluminum Table 20 Standard Gibbs free energies for solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.9781627081849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...+SO 2 Lithium-manganese dioxide Li+Mn(IV)O 2 →LiMn(IV)O 2 Lithium-carbon monofluoride nLi+(CF) n →nLiF+nC Corrosion of Batteries The tendency of metals to oxidize during battery discharge is reflected in their negative Gibbs free energy change. Metals that oxidize more readily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to oxidize during battery discharge is reflected in the usually substantial negative Gibbs free-energy change for the reactions in Eq 1 or 2 . Metals that oxide more readily have more negative Gibbs free-energy changes, and one might conclude that these metals should make better anodes for batteries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and can be seen on a free-energy diagram ( Fig. 5a ). Smaller particles have a higher free energy due to increased pressure because of high surface curvature. The point of common tangent ( Fig. 5a ) therefore occurs at a higher solute concentration. Fig. 5 Gibbs free-energy composition diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... is the Gibbs free energy. The steepest descending direction of the total energy is given by derivatives of E with respect to each field variable and constitutes the thermodynamic driving force for the change of that variable at each location. When an unconstrained system is in a thermodynamic equilibrium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... materials can be taken as zero at absolute zero temperature” (0 K). This principle allows calculation of the absolute values of entropy of pure substances solely from heat capacity. Gibbs Energy Because both S and V are difficult to control experimentally, an additional term, Gibbs energy, G...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... according to the reaction: (Eq 11) 4 UF 3 ( d ) ↔ 3 UF 4 ( d ) + U ( d ) Standard Gibbs free energies (Δ<italic>G</italic><sup>f</sup>) of formation for species in molten 2LiF-BeF<sub>2</sub>. Table 2 Standard Gibbs free energies (Δ G f ) of formation for species...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... data (triangles and dashed line), compared with calculated phase boundaries and the T 0 line, which is the locus of points where the Gibbs free energy of α equals γ. Source: Ref 5 It is generally accepted that the nucleation process controls the rate of the massive transformation ( Ref 6...