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Field Metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of field metallography and describes the important material characteristics and other aspects to be considered before performing any metallographic procedure. It investigates the various stages of sample preparation...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 1 Examples of field metallography. (a) Metallographer using field techniques to examine the microstructure of a hot strip work roll that spalled. Metallographer is in the mill roll shop where rolls are reconditioned. (b) Field metallography being conducted in a power plant More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 32 Field metallography of a nickel aluminide austenitizing furnace roll. (a) and (b) Gold-enhanced replicas representing the microstructure of a nickel aluminide austenitizing furnace roll. The dendritic microstructure consists of primary dendrite arm of nickel aluminide with small More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 9 An outline of the investigation steps for various stages of field metallography More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 Rubber stubs used to hold grinding papers and polishing cloths for field metallography. Three different mesh size grinding papers are on stubs on the right and a polishing cloth on the stub on the left More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the analysis methods for spalling of striking tools with emphasis on field tests conducted by A.H. Burn and on the laboratory tests of H.O. McIntire and G.K. Manning and of J.W. Lodge. It focuses on the metallography and fractography of spalling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... metallography, where specimens are replicas taken in situ from components in the field. There are two types of replicas: surface replicas and extraction replicas. Surface replicas provide an image of the surface topography of a specimen, while extraction replicas lift particles from the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for examination of a polished specimen and after etching, and is the most commonly used examination mode in metallography. Polarized light is widely used to examine the structure of as-polished metals with a noncubic crystal structure. However, it is still useful to examine the as-polished surface in bright field...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specimens if the material being sampled is rather large. The second group of measurements belongs to the field referred to as stereology. This body of measurements describes the relationship between measurements made on the two-dimensional plane of polish and the three-dimensional microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article provides information on the basic components of a light microscope, including the illumination system, collector lens, and optical and mechanical components. It describes optical performance in terms of image aberrations, resolution, and depth of field. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... photographic principles and techniques as applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. The discussion covers the processes involved in field and laboratory photographic documentations, provides a description of professional digital cameras, and gives information on photographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... steel as a function of plating time. Measurements were made at 1000× with up to 21 locations per specimen. Fig. 1 Depth of electroless nickel plating on AISI 4150 alloy steel as a function of time at 95 °C (205 °F) The second group of measurements belongs to the field referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-based image analysis system can measure and statistically analyze a variety of surface features over a number of fields of view very quickly and accurately. Table 1 provides a list of common image analysis features and field measurements. Quantitative image analysis Table 1 Quantitative image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the specimen may require two to three charges of the acid/abrasive solution. This final-polishing step can last from 3 to 5 min. When polishing is complete, a slight indication of second-phase structure would be visible using bright field illumination. Polarized light also works well for checking the progress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrolytic polishing. The article also describes the microstructure examination of various materials, with emphasis on failure analysis, and concludes with information on the examination of replicas with light microscopy. electrolytic polishing failure analysis field metallography fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sectioning for scanning electron microscopy examination and/or metallography. It is important to photograph the component at each stage of the process to retain the visual information available and the component condition at each step. Field Photographic Documentation Composition Photographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of light microscopy are covered in the article “Light Optical Metallography” in this Volume. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., a larger sample area and more samples must be analyzed. Thus, image analysis can provide better statistical accuracy and more meaningful results. In addition, image analyzers can perform several measurements on each field within milliseconds, providing a more complete description of the microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is the field of research in which information about life in the past is obtained from the study of how past peoples produced and used metals and alloys. It is, in fact, a subdiscipline of archaeometry, a broader field in which all of the physical and natural sciences are applied to studies of the past...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... may produce a thin film on the surface, with a degree of roughness. Examination in bright field reveals little, but polarized light reveals the structure clearly. There are other procedures to create interference films using heat (heat tinting), vapor deposition, or by reactive sputtering. Color...