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Extension ladders

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent buckling. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). (b) Relation of maximum applied load to the section thickness of the flanges and web of the side-rail extrusion. More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent buckling. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). (b) Relation of maximum applied load to the section thickness of the flanges and web of the side-rail extrusion More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... on the ladder rail. If this were an extension ladder, one should find the label at about eye height (5 to 6 ft, 1.52 to 1.83 m) on the base (lower) section. If this were a single ladder, one should find it at the same height on both ends. How good is this label? How effective is it? Assuming that users do...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the material strength is degraded. If either situation is a characteristic of the fabricated structure, the design must be changed to allow for these factors more realistically. Example 1: Collapse of Extension Ladders by Overloading of Side Rails Several aluminum alloy extension ladders of the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... value or when the material strength is degraded. If either situation is a characteristic of the fabricated structure, the design must be changed to allow for these factors more realistically. Overload Failure Example 1: Collapse of Extension Ladders by Overloading of Side Rails. Several...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that can be eliminated by reasonable accident-prevention methods is unreasonable and unacceptable. A high risk of injury could be considered reasonable and acceptable if the injury is minimal and the risk is recognized by the individual concerned. As might be expected, there is extensive and ongoing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ladder and towage area Surface and intergranular Paint failure from usage V RBR. Item replaced if damage is extensive Floor structures Surface, chemical attack, and exfoliation Paint failure from usage and spills V RBR. Install patches if beyond negligible damage limit. BAS. Item replaced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and deckhouses, and other applications such as stack enclosures, hatch covers, windows, air ports, accommodation ladders, gangways, bulkheads, deck plate, ventilation equipment, lifesaving equipment, furniture, hardware, fuel tanks, and bright trim. In addition, ships are making extensive use of welded aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... structure can be observed in the center of the crystal. Two distinctly different structures can be seen here. The structure of the fatigue slip band, lying along the [ 1 01] crystallographic direction, resembles here three irregular ladders, while the surrounding matrix structure is one of perpendicularly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... ionization potential to produce the image provides some extension; but the ionization potentials of the inert gases vary only by a factor of 2 ( Table 2 ), and maximum extension in the field of view is therefore limited. A greater advantage of using image gases of lower ionization potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... moisture and contaminants into the insulation hanger rods (angle iron brackets) Inadequate spacing that causes interruption of the vapor or weather barrier (nozzle extensions, ladder brackets, deck or grating supports). The weather barrier on such designs is frequently broken because of inappropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... given in this article give the reader a solid idea how field metallographic techniques are employed. Basically, the metallographer should consider field metallography as simply an extension of the metallographic laboratory. Although the examples given in this article are mostly of steels and cast irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... As might be expected, there is extensive and ongoing debate over the meaning of “reasonable” and “unreasonable.” The American Law Institute ( Ref 2 ) says unreasonably dangerous means that: “The article sold must be dangerous to an extent beyond that which would be contemplated by the ordinary consumer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... carefully nurses each word or phrase from its brainstorming list up this ladder of abstraction until an idea, concept, or solution emerges. If the exercise is not successful, that word is deleted and the elevation effort is applied to the next word on the list. The question asked of each word/phrase is “how...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... four categories of criticality as a function of the seriousness of the consequences of failure. This type of analysis is essentially an extension of FMEA and is designated failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA). Fault Tree Analysis Fault tree analysis (FTA) differs from FMEA...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... time to specified performance, days (c) Continues 5 Continues 14 Shrinkage, % 5 20 20 10–15 Hardness, new (1–6 mo), at 25 °C (75 °F), Shore A scale … 15–40 10–30 10–25 Hardness, old (5 years) at 25 °C (75 °F), Shore A scale … 30–45 30–50 30–55 Resistance to extension at low...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the foundry's extensive experience with stainless steel. Although type 431 stainless costs considerably more than 4340, this increase was more than offset by the higher percentage of acceptable castings produced in stainless steel. Fig. 6 This close-tolerance sand casting, although designed to be cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and more extensive surface preparation are required ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 6 A single-coat alkyd applied to canopy steel in an exterior environment has failed. Additional coats or a more robust system should have been applied. While multiple coats of alkyd are an option, the steel is typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... or spiked roller covers exist for other specialty applications. Aside from the roller cover itself, the roller frame to which the roller cover is affixed can have various handle configurations. For example, long-handled roller frames and extension poles screwed into the handle of the roller frame can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... work largely was conducted on this material. Extensive dew-point corrosion work is reported in Ref 4 , 5 . In specialized applications, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, and organic and inorganic coatings are also used. The latest developments are condensing heat-recovery...