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Evaporators

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a typical vacuum deposition chamber Fig. 10 Primary components of a batch-type vacuum deposition system that can be used for plasma processing Fig. 7 Sources used for resistive heating of materials in evaporation processing Fig. 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Coolers Inc. Fig. 3 Air-cooled tower with top fans. Courtesy of Dry Coolers Inc. Fig. 6 Counter-flow closed-loop pressurized evaporative cooling tower, which requires a pan heater Fig. 7 Schematic of a closed-loop pressurized evaporative cooling tower. Courtesy of Dry Coolers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract Field ion microscopy (FIM) can be used to study the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as metals and semiconductors, because successive atom layers can be ionized and removed from the surface by field evaporation. The ions removed from the surface by field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...-linked resins, thermoplastic resins, and cross-linked thermosetting resins. The autooxidative cross-linked resins include alkyd resins and epoxy esters. The article examines the two types of coatings based on thermoplastic resins: those deposited by evaporation of a solvent, commonly called lacquers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and analog electronic devices. The article gives a brief introduction on superconducting materials, substrates and buffer layers and discusses the major deposition techniques such as, electron-beam co-evaporation, sputtering from either a composite target or multiple sources and laser ablation. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., abrupt interfaces; hard-to-control coating composition; line of sight Evaporation Large range of available materials; tailor- able compositions; high-purity coatings; low cost Thin coatings; line of sight; abrupt interface (unless ion-beam assisted) Sputtering Low-temperature process; potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of carbon matrices and the corresponding methods used to create them or incorporate them into a matrix of a composite. These forms include graphite, diamond, fullerenes, and nanotubes. The article discusses the three types of liquid precursors, namely, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and evaporative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract Lost foam casting is a sand casting process in which the mold consists of an evaporative polystyrene foam pattern embedded in sand. It is especially well suited for making complex parts with convoluted features such as engine blocks, transmission cases, and cylinder heads...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... with heterophase fluctuations that led to the formation of precipitates. It discusses the gas cluster dynamics using the kinetic approach to describe nucleation. The article presents key parameters, such as cluster condensation and evaporation rates, to describe the time evolution of the system. The predictions...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract The Replicast process is developed to overcome the formation of lustrous carbon defects and carbon pickup observed in conventional evaporative pattern casting processes. This article provides a discussion on the pattern production, process capabilities, advantages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Vapor-deposition processes fall into two major categories, namely, physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This article describes major deposition processes such as sputtering, evaporation, ion plating, and CVD. The list of materials that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... furnace bake-out Fig. 5 Damage to furnace from binder decomposition products condensing in the pumps due to a lack of cold traps or a burn-off system Fig. 12 Partial pressure argon used during a copper-braze cycle to suppress copper loss from evaporation Fig. 11 Vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses ion...